International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 08, April, 2013

Pages: 20-31

Date of Publication: 25-Apr-2013


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BIOENRICHMENT OF LIVE FEED DAPHNIA MAGNA FOR THE SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF FRESHWATER FISH CATLA CATLA

Author: S. Munirasu, V. Ramasubramanian, V.Uthayakumar, S.Muthukumar

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Daphnia is the potential live feed available in small ponds and lakes. The present study is to evaluate the effect of the Daphnia magna enriched with different micro algae such as Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Spirogyra maximus on growth, survival and biochemical changes of freshwater fish Catla catla. The experimental fishes were fed with Spirulina enriched Daphnia (E1), Chlorella enriched Daphnia (E2), Spirogyra enriched Daphnia (E3), and unenriched Daphnia (E4) as a control and triplicates were maintained for each treatments. After 60 days, the growth rate, survival and Biochemical Compositions such as Protein, Lipids, carbohydrate, amino acids and fatty acids levels were measured. The highest survival rate was recorded as 99.17 % which corresponds to the highest growth rate of fish. Significant differences were observed (P < 0.05) in weight gain, Specific growth rate (SGR), Food conversion ratio (FCR) and Survival (%) (E1) between experimental and control groups. The fishes were fed with diet E1 (S.platensis) was highly significant (P< 0.05) with mean length (1.5 ?0.18 to 4.38 ?0.13) and mean weight (0. 0.210 ?0.01to 2.75 ?0.30) increase in weight gain 273.65% when compared to control (E4) fed fishes. The growth was estimated based on increase in biomass (1.91 + .007) and specific growth rate (3.12 \? 0.06). The Protein, Lipid and Carbohydrates were high in S.platensis enriched D.magna fed fishes. Hence we conclude that S.platensis enriched D.magna is a better food for the larval rearing of Commercial fish C. catla.

Keywords: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, Spirogyra maxima, Daphnia magna, Catla catla, Nutritional values.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Live feeds are one of the major inputs in aquaculture. The success of fish farming depends on the adequate quality of nutritionally balanced feeds (Olsen et al., 1993); Most of the larviculture sector dependent on artemia is the primary food for larval nutrition (Mason 1974; Arthur 1976; Schmidt-Moser and Westphal 1980). The nutritional quality of live feeds can be improved by enriching them with exogenous source of nutrients. For freshwater fish larvae which have a very small mouth and swallow their prey in one bite the size of the nauplii is particularly critical. Cyclops and Daphnia are excellent food source, which could provide quality first feed for fish and crustaceans and the nutritional value on grown and adult D.magna is superior (Sorgeloos, 1980; Leger et al., 1986). The advantages of algae as a food is enormous as algal feeds are easy to culture and it is an excellent feed for the growth of zooplanktons (Bogdan and Gilbert, 1987).  Algae are alternative plant feedstuffs that are increasingly being used in aqua feeds because of their nutritional quality, low cost and availability (Mustafa and Nakagawa, 1995). The lower limit of the light intensity for the light type was about 1500 lux and the higher limit for the dim light type was about 1000 lux, although both limit intensities shifted to some extent depending on the freshwater macro algae biochemical investigations show Spirogyra to be rich in nutritive value (Venkataraman, Nigam and Ramanatham, 1980). Freshwater fish larvae, which is unable to synthesize essential amino acid DHA and EPA from the shorter PUFA, has precursor Linolenic acid (18:3n-3) which are required for larval growth and survival as well as contributing to egg and sperm quality when induced in brood stock. Algae are the main sources of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) for zooplankton (Witt et al., 1984; Kanazawa et al., 1985; Koven et al., 1992; Sargent et al., 1997). Enrichment or boosting of the aquatic feeds into the organisms has been incorporated in to the larval rearing protocols for many fish species (Sorgeloos et al., 1991). The best materials for enriching Daphnia are different micro algae and these are used because of its easy culturing and excellent food for fishes (Hassina Momotaj et al., 1986). Daphnia which is incapable of synthesizing highly polyunsaturated fatty acid and essential amino acids, it needs to be enriched by micro algal enrichment which contain high level of amino acid in particular, has high biological value during larval development. Catla catla is the fastest growing species (Ravi and Devaraj 1991). The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the effect of D.manga enriched with different algae feeds phytoplankton’s (S. platensis, C. vulgaris and S.maxima) on survival and growth of C.catla.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 The fresh water C. catla fries were collected from Bhavani sagar Government Fish Development Corporation, Erode district, Tamilnadu. They were transported safely and brought to the laboratory in well-oxygenated plastic bags. They were stocked in large cement tank (6’ × 4’ × 3’) and acclimatized to the laboratory condition for 2 weeks before the commencement of experiments. During acclimatization, C. catla were fed with live unenriched D.magna. Water was routinely changed every day in order to maintain a healthy environment for the fishes apart from providing artificial aeration. This ensures sufficient oxygen supply for the fishes and an environment devoid of accumulated metabolic wastes.

Experimental Setup

The fresh water fish’s C. catla with initial length of 1.2±0.5 cm and initial weights 0.13±0.08g were used. The experimental period was restricted to 60 days. Each experimental trough contained 40L of water capacity. The experimental groups were fed with different algae, Fishes were fed with Spirulina platensis, enriched Daphnia - (E1), Fishes were fed with Chlorella vulgaris enriched Daphnia - (E2), Fishes were fed with Spirogyra maximus enriched Daphnia - (E3), Control fishes were fed with unenriched Daphnia – (E4). Before initializing the experiment, the initial length and weight of the animals were measured; similarly at the end of this experiment (on 60th day) the final length and weight were measured. Similar experimental setup was maintained for several times to study various parameters.

 Phytoplankton culture

 In the present study important algae such as S. platensis, C. vulgaris and S.maxima were cultured to enrich the Zooplankton (D.magna).

Collection of phytoplankton

The experimental micro algae, S. platensis and C. vulgaris pure culture were obtained from Antenna Green Trust, Antheneri village, Kadachanenthal, Madurai, Tamilnadu. The Spirogyra cultures were collected from IRTC, Palakkad, Kerala. The pure cultures were transferred in oxygen filled polyethylene covers for proper aeration.

Culture of Spirulina platensis

The pure Spirulina cultures were poured into the 24 L plastic tubs and were placed in sun light. Several physico-chemical parameters were maintained in culture medium for the proper culture of Spirulina, such as pH, temperature and dissolved solids. The parameters were checked at every two days interval. Proper aeration was provided through aerators for proper mixing of chemicals and proper growth of Spirulina.

Culture of Chlorella vulgaris

The fresh water green C.vulgaris were cultured in Aquarium tanks. The salt ingredients were dissolved in Ground water. After that, cow dung was mixed with water and filtered with the nylon cloth. The filtrate was put in the culture and mixed well during the culture period.  The pH was maintained at 8 and no aeration was provided. The pure C.vulgaris culture were poured into the 24 L plastic tubs and placed in sun light. The culture medium was stirred twice daily for proper distribution of chemicals and good aeration such as pH, temperature, and dissolved solids. to prevent sedimentation and a homogenous exposure of algal cells to light; reduce the nutrient and temperature gradient along depth of culture.

Culture of Spirogyra maxima

The samples were collected just below the water surface in 500 ml plastic containers with screw caps. The Spirogyra was collected and washed thoroughly to remove the adhering dirt. pH of the medium was adjusted to 6.5. Soil-water medium with its variations was excellent for long-term preservation and normal morphology of the above culture.

Calculation of Growth rate in Phytoplankton

After the 20 days S. platensis, C. vulgaris and S.maxima can be viewed as a thin layer on the surface of the medium. At this stage the Spirulina cell count may be calculated by the following equation,

Where,

Nt = final density of phytoplankton,   No = Initial density of phytoplankton

 t = time interval between the initial and final density estimated

In = Individual animals, r = Growth rate.

Procedures were repeated in several tubs and required quantities of phytoplankton were cultivated.

Harvesting of phytoplankton

Productivities rarely exceed 30-200 gm per day and cell densities of 2g/ L. The Spirulina and Chlorella were harvested by filtration through meshes having size about 10µm. After harvesting, the algal biomass was dehydrated by sun during. The harvested Spirulina and Chlorella powders were stored in clean, and air tight containers. During weight measurements of algae powders were calculated in gram per liter by during the biomass in an oven at 105?C for two hours. This Spirulina powder was used to enrich the Daphnia.

Harvesting and drying

The cultured Spirogyra were filtered with the help of net of mesh size 30µm and washed thoroughly with the clean water and dried in a hot oven at 60?C. After drying Spirogyra were powdered into fine particles, properly weighed and then stored in clean containers for further use.

Zooplankton culture

The live feed of present investigation D.magna collected from Muthanna Lake, P.N.Pudur, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, and India. During collection period the dip net was swept through the surface water near the shore. Collected mixed zooplanktons were stored in a container. The sample was diluted (5 times) by adding water. Using the plankton net Daphnia were isolated from other zooplanktons. Transferred to a cement tank which was prefilled with soil (5 cm depth), poultry manure (0.4 kg/ton), lime powder (1 kg) and water of 15cm height for further culture.

The density of Daphnia were calculated as follows

Where

Nt = Final density of the Daphnia, No = Initial density of Daphnia.

t = time interval between the initial and final density estimation.

In =Individual animals.

Enrichment

D.magna was enriched with S. platensis, C. vulgaris and S.maxima to feed the commercially important fish C.catla, cultured in laboratory. The 48 hours adult nauplii of Daphnia were fed with each type of food at same concentration 0.5 mg/ml/d. The powdered feeds are taken at 0.5 mg concentration, mixed with distilled water and stirred for 2-3 minutes vigorously. D.magna (50/ml) was introduced into 500ml culture flasks containing freshwater and mild aeration was provided. After 6 hours of enrichment D.magna (adult nauplii) were fed to experimental fishes (C. catla) twice a day. Daily observations were done.  After 60days, the final length, weight and percentage of survival were determined.

Nutritional analysis

Protein, lipid and carbohydrates were determined by the following methods. The basic procedures followed were for protein (Lowry et al., 1951), lipids (Folch et al., 1957) and carbohydrates (Roe 1987).

Amino acids analysis

Total Amino acid composition was determined using a High Performance Thin Layer Liquid Chromatography (Hess and Sherma, 2004).

Fatty acid analysis

Fatty Acid Analysis was done using Gas Chromatography described by Nichols et al.., 1995.

Growth analysis

The growth parameters were calculated by using the following formulae according to (Felix and Sudharsan 2004; Venkat et al. 2004).

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) and Student’s t-test, to determine differences between experimental levels. Levels of significance are expressed as (P < 0.05). All analyses were performed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS computer software, North Carolina, USA) program.

RESULTS

Physico-chemical parameters of rearing water

Mean physico-chemical parameters like water temperature (ºC), dissolved oxygen       (mg l-1), pH, ammonia–nitrogen(mg1-1), residual chloride (mg1-1) and Fluoride (mg1-1), were recorded in ranges from (27.03±0.45 to 27.27±0.4 ºC), (5.4±0.4 to 5.7±0.6 mg 1-1), (7.9±0.22 to 8.3±0.8), (0.7 ± 0.02 to 1.0 ± 0.6 mg 1-1), (0.2 ± 0.82 to 0.8  ± 2.91 mg 1-1) and (1.0 ± 1.74-1.8 ± 0.72 mg1-1) respectively (Table 1).

Biochemical analysis of experimental diets and tissues

Chemical compositions of the experimental tissues were reported in (Table 2). Variation in the values of crude protein content of feed was (34.46±0.89 to 43.26±1.47 %), crude lipid content (15.03±1.08 to19.27±2.18) crude carbohydrate content (30.3±0.31 to 39.7±7.07), Ash Content (15.07±1.83 to 16.83±0.62) and Moisture content (68.93±1.82 to 73.82±0.68) recorded respectively. Tissue crude lipid content was recorded within the range of (3.27–3.6%).

Growth parameters

The growth parameters recorded in this experiment were presented in (Table 3).

The S.platensis performed the best in all the growth-related parameters. The fish fed with diet E1 (S.platensis) showed a high significant (P< 0.05) mean length (1.5 ±0.18 to 4.38 ±0.13) and mean weight (0. 0.210 ±0.01to 2.73±0.30) and increase in weight gain 273.65% over control. The highest survival rates were recorded as 99.17 % which also corresponds to the highest growth rate of fish.

Values are means of three replicates per treatment

Values containing same superscript in a row do not vary significantly (P < 0.05)

Values are means of three replicates per treatment

Values containing same superscript in a row do not vary significantly (P< 0.05)


Amino acid analysis using HPTLC

The Protein and amino acid estimation of the different algae enriched D.magna fed fishes was carried out by using HPTLC.17 amino acids were found to be present in the fresh fed with a total of 12.57mg/g tissue (Table 4). The concentration of amino acids in the fishes fed with S.platensis enriched D.magna were of Arginin  2.55, Histidine 9.72, Isoleucine  4.69, Leucine  5.59, Lysine 4.56, Tryptophan 1.89, Threonine ,3.79, Valine 1.00, Cysteine 1.83, Methionine  2.20, Tyrosine 2.3, Phenylalanin 4.01, Glutamic acid 14.20, Glycine  2.00, Alanin  2.53, Proline  3.30 and Serine  4.03 and total amino acids were 70.19 % respectively.

Fatty Acid Profile:

Fatty acids Profile of C.catla fed with different phytoplankton enriched D.magna (Expressed in mole %) were tabulated in Table.5. In the S.platensis enriched D.magna the total saturated fatty acid content was (SFA) 46.95%, total MUFA was 23.49%, and total PUFA and HUFA was 42.04 %. The C.vulgaris enriched D.magna had total SFA  46.84%, total MUFA as 14.6%, total PUFA and HUFA as 41.5%. In the S.maxima enriched D.magna, the total SFA content was 43.82 %, total MUFA was 17.56%, total PUFA and HUFA was 39.35% and unenriched Daphnia had the total SFA as 45.87 %, total MUFA as 16.15%, total PUFA and HUFA as 36.74% respectively.

DISCUSSION

In the present study, variations in nutritional composition among planktons were observed.  The studies indicated that the sufficient densities of S.platensis are important for the normal growth and development of larval C.catla during the early development (Lu, J. and Takeuchi, T. 2004). The S.platensis contains high protein compared to C.vulgaris and S.maxima (Table 3). The biochemical composition of S.platensis revealed that they have high amount of protein between 55-70% depending on the source (Phang et al, 2000). S.platensis is rich in high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and many biologically active substances (Becker, 1994). S.platensis can be used in the diets of domestic animals (Vekataraman 1972). Despite on the high nutritive value of algae, little information has been published on their use as a protein source for fishes (Appler, 1985; Nakagawa et al., 1987; Cho and Kaushik, 1990). The present study recommends that algae enriched D.magna and copepod (M.aspericornis) can be exclusively used as an important alternate or supplementary feed for commercial seed production of C.catla. Larvae of nearly all marine and of many freshwater fish species require live feed organisms as first food  for many fish species live food still gives better results in terms of growth and survival than artificial diets (Dabrowski, 1984). After 60days of experiment the biochemical composition of fish enriched with S. platensis enriched Daphnia was found to contain maximum level of protein. These results indicated that S. platensis is best food for enrichment of D.magna suitable for the growth and survival of commercial fish C.catla (Nandeesh et al., 1993). There is great difference found between the feeds enriched fed fish and control. Protein is the most important and expensive component of the aquaculture diets. Protein is required in the diet to provide indispensable amino acids and nitrogen for synthesis of dispensable amino acids (Balazs and Ross., 1976; Colvin and Brand, 1977).  They supply the major portion of energy required by living cells. If a large percentage of the metabolic energy requirements of the animal can be met from the carbohydrate, it have the potential for delivering a low cost source of energy that could spare protein for growth (Cedric Simon, 2009). Lipids are substances found in both plants and animals (Harrison, 1990).  Lipids fall into two basic categories (glycerol-based and nonglycerol-based). The lipids are important sources of metabolic energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and are the most energy-rich of all classes of nutrients. (Teshima 1972; Pillay and Nair, 1973; Galois, 1984). Among the 17 Protein in body tissues, 10 amino acids are essential and  must be supplied through the  diet since animals including fish cannot synthesis them (Watanabe, 1993; Coloso and Cruz, 1980; Kanazawa and Tsshima, 1981). A large proportion of the amino acid consumed by animals is catabolized for energy. Amino acids play important and versatile roles in fish nutrition and metabolism. (Peng Li et al., 2008). Since high protein diets are needed for good growth of most aquatic animals (NRC, 1993), estimation of minimum requirements of essential amino acids (EAA) is indispensable to formulate cost effective diets. The quantitative EAA requirements of fish and crustaceans are often determined by feeding experiments with diets containing graded levels of the particular amino acid to be examined (Wilson, and Halver, 1986; Tang and Hwang, 1966 and Cobb et al., 1975). Both the absolute amounts of individual fatty acids and their relative proportion are important in the nutrition of fish larvae (Sargent et al., 1997). In particular, the DHA/EPA ratio may affect larval growth and survival, possibly because high amounts of EPA in relation to DHA may create an imbalance in the structural composition of the phospholipids that are essential components of biological membranes (Rainuzzo et al., 1994). In the present study, DHA/EPA ratios ranged from 4.7:1 for A. sinjiensis to 2.2:1 for P. crassirostris. All three species therefore met or exceeded the recommended DHA/EPA ratio of about 2:1 formarine finfish larval feeds (Sargent et al., 1997). The improvements in larval growth, survival and rates of normal are generally attributed to levels of DHA, EPA and or arachidonic acid (ARA) in the diet (Castell et al., 1994; Reitan et al., 1994).

 

CONCLUSION

The present investigation on nutritional evaluation of different algal diets for the survival and growth of C.catla showed best results especially with reference to biochemical compositions. We have used 3 important algae for the enrichment of live feed, D.magna and obtained detailed results. The biochemical compositions of different algae S. platensis, C. vulgaris and S.maxima, the fatty acids of algae enriched D.magna , Amino acid analyses of algae enriched live feeds D.magna  were done for feeding the live feeds enriched with these algae to commercial fish C.catla, for ensuring the S. platensis as a better protein supplement for fish larvae. The results clearly indicates that the green algae enriched D.magna are the best candidate species for practical aquaculture.

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  7. Witt, U., G. Quantz, and G. Kuhlmann, 1984. Survival and growth of turbot larvae Scophthalmus maximus L. reared on different food organismswith spesial regard to longchain polyunsatturated fatty acids. Aquacult. Eng. 3: 177–190.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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