International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 09 Issue 12, June, 2017

Pages: 32-38

Date of Publication: 24-Jun-2017


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A Statistical Analysis of Trends in Mortality from Major Infectious Diseases of Global burden, 1990-2015

Author: M. N. Megeri, H. H. Budihal, Manoj Kumar G.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Infectious diseases are the world's foremost cause of death that presents one of the most significant health and safety challenges facing the global community. Studying about infectious diseases has become an important aspect because of its unexpected fluctuations in mortality rates and changing the demographic scenario of any nation.
Aim: This paper provides an outlook in the trends of mortality rates of major infectious diseases (ID's) at the global level.
Data and Methodology: The data collected from Institute for Health Matrix and Evaluation (IHME) and has been tested for the normality and homogeneity of residuals by Shapiro-Wilk test and standard Normal Homogeneity test respectively. Joinpoint Regression analysis was carried out to estimates of Annual Percent Change (APC) and trends of ID's
Results: The result shows a gradual decrement from 1990 to 2015 in the death rates from ID's. But in case of HIV with TB, HIV/AIDS and Malaria, death rates increased till 2004 and later it was decreased gradually along with the crude mortality rates. The joinpoint regression method also identifies different inflation points to the different ID's.
Discussion and Conclusion: The diseases like Lower respiratory infections shows highest death rate among other major ID's mortality followed by diarrheal diseases and drop off in recent years and least rates are seen in Intestinal Infectious Diseases. The implementation of health policies by WHO and advancement of technology in health science reduces the mortality rates of Infectious diseases.

Keywords: Joinpoint Regression, Infectious diseases, HIV, TB

Full Text:

Introduction:

Infectious diseases (ID’s) are the important contributing factor to the human mortality and morbidity in recent times. Today ID’s still account for the large proportion of deaths and disability globally and in certain regions remain the important cause of ill health. The term ‘Infectious diseases’ is not refers to the homogenous set of illness rather to a broad group of widely varying conditions. The relative and absolute important of particular infection or group of infections varies drastically across regions.

ID’s leading causes of death of children and adolescent, and one of the leading causes for the adults in the worldwide. ID’s have spread across populations and regions throughout history and it is likely that newly emerging ID’s will continue to be identified. In recent years, Ebola outbreaks in West Africa have killed the 11315 people of six countries and rapidly became the deadliest occurrence of disease. The first case of Ebola was reported in March 2014 but since it’s discovered in 1976 (WHO, 2015).

The ID’s has been now geographically spreading much faster than at any time in history because of high mobility, interdependent and interconnected society. This result that ID’s have become causes of serious public health issues and their threat has been increasing, (WHO, 2007). Some ID’s have emerging and re-emerging with different biological structure and more viral than previous in new location because of environmental and climate change, human behavior, new technologies, microbial adoptions and host impaired immunity (MacLehose L et al., 2002). 

In high- income countries, deaths from infectious diseases are overwhelmingly due to respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS. In sub-Saharan Africa, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria account for roughly similar proportions of total infectious disease deaths (Murray and Lopez, 1997). An analysis of Global Burden of Disease Study (GBDS) data concludes that the poorest 20% of the world’s population experiences a far higher burden of infectious disease compared to the remaining 80% of the world’s population (Gwatkin et al., 1999).

In south Asia, infectious diseases are major cause of children deaths and disability. Among the estimated 3.7 million deaths of children in the year 2000 there were two third of deaths of children due to infections such as Pneumonia, Diarrheal and Measles (Black RE et al., 2003). Of the overall burden of deaths related to infectious diseases in the South Asia around 63% are in children aged under 5 years (Lopez AD, 1993).

Figure 1: Mortality trend of infectious diseases from 1990-2015.


 

The study focuses on major infectious diseases like HIV and TB, HIV/ AIDS, Tuberculosis, Lower respiratory infections, Intestinal infectious diseases, Malaria and Diarrheal where these selected infectious diseases accounted for approximately 18 per cent of deaths among the deaths due to all causes (Infectious and Non Infectious diseases) in the year 1990 as shown in figure 1. But this per cent is declined to 13 per cent in the year 2015. We have accounted the deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases and infectious causes from remaining grouping. Of these diseases, selected seven ID’s accounted for approximately 66 per cent in 2015 increased by 11 per cent from the year 1990. Out of all the infectious diseases classified by WHO in the form of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) these seven infectious diseases plays a significance role in mortality rates. Hence it is necessary to study the trends of Mortality rates of these seven ID’s global level.

This paper aims to study the trend and pattern of seven selected ID’s. First section briefs about the introduction and significance of ID’s, section 2 discusses about Methods and Materials used, section 3 focuses on results and discussion and last section concludes the study.

Methods and Materials:

This paper is attempt to study selected seven major infectious diseases globally viz. Lower respiratory infections, Diarrheal diseases, Tuberculosis, HIV/ AIDS, Malaria, Intestinal infectious diseases and HIV with TB. The data on deaths due to these above mentioned ID’s is collected from Institute for Health Matrix and Evaluation (IHME) in the form of time series data from 1990 to 2013.

The assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance of residuals which are obtained after applying the model are tested using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality and Standard Normal Homogeneity test respectively. The Joinpoint regression analysis is used in the study to analyze the trends of incidence and mortality rates of any Infectious diseases which give the Annual Percentage Change (APC) and Points of Inflation. This study can fit the joinpoint regression model to the data that allow for testing of whether an apparent change in trend is statistically significant.

 

This model assumes a linear trend between joinpoints and continuity at the joinpoints. It is mainly used to identify the points of inflation in the trends and to detect the statistical significant change when changes occurred in the trends. This model has also same underlying assumptions as simple regression. If constant variance of error is assumed then estimates the parameters of joinpoint model with ordinary least squares and for non constant variance i.e. variance of errors depends on time then applied the weighted least square method to estimates the parameters.

There are three major decisions in any joinpoint regression analysis

  1. The form of the mean function (Data distribution: Normal or Poisson; Equation: linear or log linear)
  2. The location of the joinpoints given number of joinpoints, and
  3. The optimal joinpoint model

The first step is to find out the form of data. The next step in fitting the model is to determine the range of the number of joinpoints to be tested, usually between 0 and 4. Then locations of the each given number of the joinpoints can be determined by using grid search method. This method creates a “grid” of all possible locations for joinpoints specified by the settings, and tests the error sum of square (SSE) at each one to find the best possible fit. The third step is to find the final model i.e. the optimal number of joinpoints and the optimal locations of related joinpoints using the permutation test method (Jiang et al., 2010).

            Kim et al., (2000) proposed a series of permutation tests to determine the best number of change-points in segmented line regression. In choosing the better model between the one with change-points and the alternated with change-points, Kim and others proposed the Monte Carlo simulation approach for permutation tests based on F-statistic:

 

Results:

 Trends of mortality rates of selected seven ID are visualized by joinpoint regression analysis and have identified joinpoints with annual percentage change. Table 1 represents the APC’s for different time period of the LRI, Diarrheal diseases, TB and IID, there is only one change point occurred in the mortality trend of these four diseases when both sexes combined. During the period 1990 to 2015 for the total (both sexes), LRI disease have accounted highest number of deaths among the all other 7 selected ID’s followed by the Diarrheal diseases and HIV/AIDS. The IID’s has counted minimum number of deaths during the year 2015 followed by HIV/TB.

When sex wise comparison is made, male mortality is higher than female mortality in the all seven IDs except Malaria as shown in the Table 1 and Table 2. Female death rates have decreased sharply than the male death rates in the study period from 1990 to 2015 but in case of HIV/AIDS and co-infection with TB female death rates increased sharply. Although mortality rates of all ID’s showed overall decrement from the year 1990 to 2015 for the both sexes except HIV/AIDS and co-infection with TB.

Table 2 represents the APC’s for different time period of the HIV/AIDS, Malaria and HIV with TB co-infection, there are three change points have observed in HIV/AIDS mortality trend and two change points observed in Malaria and HIV with TB co-infection mortality trend when both sexes combined.

Joinpoint regression model identify 3 JP’s at HIV/AIDS mortality trend and 2 JP’s at malaria and HIV/TB co-infection mortality trend in total (both sex) population. These three diseases approximately followed the same trend during the study period, 1990-2015 i.e., increased mortality rates up to 2004, later decreased. The initial increase of HIV/AIDS mortality may due to unsafe sex, sharing needles and injection drug use. The morality rates have extremely increased with different APCs with statistically significant till the year 2005.

Gender wise comparison is made; 3 JP’s at HIV/AIDS mortality trend and 2 JP’s at malaria and HIV/TB co-infection mortality trend in both male and female population. The higher mortality can be seen in male than the female population in case of HIV/AIDS and HIV/TB co-infection. But in case of malaria, female mortality is higher than the male mortality. But both sexes have equally exposed to the malaria disease as per the available evidence but pregnant women and pregnant women with HIV are in high risk.


Indicates Male mortality rates          Indicates Female mortality rates

Discussion:

Joinpoint regression model identifies one JP at LRI, Diarrheal, TB and IID mortality trend in total (both sex) population. All ID’s gradually decreased throughout the study period, 1990-2015. All the changes occurred in trends are statistically significant. Gender wise comparison made; LRI and IID mortality trend have two JP’s in the both male and female population and one JP at Diarrheal and TB mortality trend. High mortality is observed in the male population than the female mortality.

This gender inequality may be due to lifestyle, behavior and socioeconomic difference between the males and females (Matthew E. F et al., 2007, Neyrolles O et al., 2009, Sevilimedu V et al., 2016).

Late 1990’s, introduction of Antiretroviral therapy played a significant role in increasing the life expectancy of HIV/AIDS patients and reducing the risk of TB infection in people living with HIV. The prevention of Mother to child transmission strategy is also great success in reducing the infant mortality due to HIV/AIDS disease.

 Conclusion:

At present, while non-communicable diseases causes more death and disability than communicable diseases in the world as a whole communicable and related disease remain the leading cause of death and disability among the global poor. LRI is leading cause of mortality among under age 5 years and severe impact on the health of populations at all ages also. Lower respiratory infections remained world’s deadly infectious disease till to the date followed by the diarrheal disease.

The trends of mortality rates for selected seven ID’s are showing decrease through the study period 1990-2015, HIV/AIDS , HIV with TB and malaria mortality rates only increased up to the year 2004, after 2004 this mortality rates also sharply decreasing.

In the late 1990s, highly active antiretroviral therapy was developed. This therapy was able to reduce the HIV viral replication. This new treatment effected in major changes in the mortality rate for AIDS in specific age group. This may be the reason to reduction in mortality rates of ID’s trend.

 The risk of developing TB is high to who infected by HIV than non HIV population. Currently co-infection leads to more likely to the fatal and so hard to treat. Most of the people living with HIV who are also infected by TB have receiving ART therapy; this may results that decrement in mortality of HIV with TB co-infection in recent years. Directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) strategies by WHO has played a significant role in identification, diagnose, prevention of TB and improvement in longevity of HIV patients who have also TB infection. These may the main reason for reduction in TB mortality rates as well as HIV-TB co-infection mortality rates.

 LRI, Diarrheal diseases, IID and Malaria diseases have been prevented by practising good lifestyle and improvement in socioeconomic status, improvement in sanitation, personal hygiene of the people and good food to the society. 

Sex is considerable epidemical factor for the numerous diseases. Sex difference played an important role in making adequate health policies and strategies. Both sexes have not equally susceptible to the all infectious diseases because it dependence on the lifestyle, behavioural and socioeconomic factors of males and females. In selected seven IDS, male population is more susceptible to LRI, diarrheal diseases, TB, HIV/AIDS, IID and HIV/TB co-infections.

Decreases in the mortality rates of selected ID’s may be because of advancement of Science and Technology which improvement in the medical facilities, awareness about the ID’s to the people due to globalization. Proper implementations of health policies by UN and their national Governments led to downfall in the trends of mortality rates. Despite a decrease in deaths caused by infectious diseases that was interrupted by HIV/AIDS at beginning of the 1990s, infectious diseases continue to be a major cause of death, which is a huge challenge to the public health.

Acknowledgement:

Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Conflict of Interest: Nil

Source of Funding: RFSMS fellowships from UGC New Delhi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  8. Matthew E. Falagas, Eleni G. Mourtzoukou, Konstantinos Z. Vardakas (2007). Sex differences in the incidence and severity of respiratory tract infections. Respiratory Medicine ,101(9): 1845–1863
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Announcements

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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