International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 09 Issue 12, June, 2017

Pages: 01-10

Date of Publication: 24-Jun-2017


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Impact of Heavy Metals and Other Factors on Soil Acarines in Four Different Edaphic Habitats in and Around a Metropolitan Township

Author: Manabendra Nath Moitra

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Objectives: The objective was to examine the nature, the extent and the variation of the impact of edaphic factors and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu) on soil acarine populations at different disturbed habitats and at a forest site in and around a metropolitan township.
Method: Four differently used edaphic habitats \? a solid waste disposal site, a roadside area, sides of a sewage canal and a natural forest in and around Kolkata were selected for the study. Sampling was conducted for three years with 30 days interval.
Results: Soil moisture and organic carbon exhibited statistically significant and positive correlation with the mite population in all the sites (p< 0.05), while soil temperature and heavy metals showed weak or strong negative effect in most instances. Solid waste disposal site appeared worst affected.
Conclusion: Edaphic factors and accumulation of heavy metals appeared to render more or less similar impact on acarine populations at the disturbed site irrespective of the nature of the habitats; at the forest site, the nature and the extent however differed.

Keywords: Soil mite, Edaphic factors, Heavy metals, Polluted sites

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Among soil mesofauna, Acari is one of the major microarthropod groups and is often found to constitute the largest fraction of them (Bhattacharya, 1979; Choudhuri and Pande, 1981; Sanyal, 1982). Their importance owing to their high numerical abundance and diversity in the context of edaphic environment is well established (Crossley, 1977; Heneghan et al., 1998). Population abundance of mites in soil vary in relation to various environmental factors like temperature, moisture, organic matters, nutrient availability etc. (Choudhuri and Pande, 1981; Sanyal, 1982; Ghatak and Roy, 1991; Tousignant and Coderre, 1992; Rutigliano et al., 2013; Bokhorst et al., 2014). The ecological study of soil microarthopods including mites in polluted or ecologically disturbed areas has drawn the attention of many researchers in different parts of the world (Russek, and Marshall, 2000; Zaitsev and van Straalen, 2001; Iloba and Ekrakene, 2008; Sarkar et al., 2015; Manu et al., 2017). In India however, a few studies on different groups of soil microarthropods in degraded and polluted areas have been attempted (Hazra et al., 1982; Hazra and Choudhuri, 1990; Bhattacharya and Chakraborti, 1994; Ghosh et al., 2007), but specific studies relating edaphic factors and abundance of acarines in degraded or polluted sites is limited when the magnificent variability of observations in their ecology is considered. The present work was therefore taken up to deal with this aspect and to add up to the information base necessary for future assessment of the environmental conditions and biomonitoring as well.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Four differently used edaphic habitats – a solid waste disposal site, a roadside area, sides of a sewage canal and a natural forest in and around Kolkata were selected for the study. At each of the sites, five sub-plots of 1 m2 area were marked for the collection. Three cores of samples up to 15 cm depth were collected from each of the sub-plots.

 1. Dhapa (Site-I): This is a dumping ground of city wastes, located by the side of Eastern Metropolitan Bypass and is spread over an area of 35 hectares. Vegetation was sparse in the selected site. Jacaranda mimosaefolia (Bignoniacae), Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae), Datura metel (Solanaceae) and Lantana camara (Verbinaceae) etc. were found in the area.

2. Sides of VIP-Barasat road (Site-II): VIP-Barasat road is one of the main arterial roads of North Kolkata connecting Ultadanga and Barasat and experiences heavy vehicular movement daily. The present site therefore has been considered as degraded. Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae), Colocasia esculenta, Datura metel (Solanaceae), Amaranthus sp. (Amaranthaceae), Acacia auriculiformis (Mimoseae), Michelia champaka, Euphorbia sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Saccharum spontaneum (Poaceae), Calotropis sp. (Asclepiadaceae) were among the common vegetation at the site.

            3. Tollygunj Nalah (Site-III): Tollygunj Nalah or Tolly nullah is a remnant of ‘Adi Ganga’. Nowadays this nulah receives a large amount of sewage daily from the adjoining human settlements as well as the small industries that have mushroomed around it. The sampling site selected for the present study was located in between Garia metro station and Garia rail station on the embankment of the nulah. Poinciana regina (Leguminosae), Musa sp. (Musaceae), Tamarindus sp. (Leguminosae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Saccharum sp. (Poaceae) abounded the sampling site.

            4. Chintamani Abhyaranya, Narendrapur (Site-IV): This abhayaranya is located near Narendrapur Ramkrishna Mission in south Kolkata. Dalbergia sp. (Papilionateae), Saraca indica (Annonaceae), Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), Adina sp. (Rubiaceae) Tamarindus sp. (Leguminosae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Saccharum sp. (Poaceae), and Dryopteris sp. (Polypodiaceae) constituted the dominant vegetation at the site.

Sampling:

            A cylindrical steel holder, an iron rod and a stainless steel core with 5 cm internal diameter and 5 cm depth were used for sampling (Dhillon and Gibson, 1962). Sampling was conducted during three consecutive years (2007-2009) with a monthly interval. Three cores of samples from five sub-plots (of 1m2 area) of each of the sites were collected.

Tullgren funnel apparatus modified by Macfadyen (1953) was used for the extraction of soil fauna from the samples in the present work.

Microarthropod groups were separated using needles and fine camel hair brush. They were preserved in tubes with 80% alcohol. Sorting and counting of the microarthropods was done using a wide field stereoscopic microscope with 70x magnification.

Physicochemical parameters:

Physicochemical factors investigated in the present study included soil moisture, soil temperature, organic carbon, pH and heavy metals - copper, lead and zinc.

Soil temperature was recorded at the sites during collection of samples using a soil thermometer. For other edaphic factors, soil samples were tasted in laboratory.

Soil temperature: Soil temperature was recorded from 3 cm depth of soil profile by inserting a mercury thermometer.

Soil moisture: Soil moisture was estimated by following the method suggested by Dowdeswell (1959).

Organic Carbon: Rapid titration method (Walkley and Black, 1934) was followed to estimate the organic carbon content of soil. 

Hydrogen ion concentration (pH): The soil pH value was measured from soil suspension using a digital pH meter (Beckman).

Estimation of Heavy metals: Concentrations of three heavy metals– lead, zinc and copper in soil were estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy using method based on ISO 11047 (1998) (ISO 11047: 1998: Determination of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc: Flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric methods).  Soil Analyst 700 atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer make) was used for the purpose.

Statistical Analysis:

A natural log transformation of the data was made to meet the requirements of normality data sets whenever necessary in the application of parametric statistical methods that included linear correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Gerard and Berthet 1966). For statistical analysis, software Minitab, version 5.1.2600 service pack 2 was used.

RESULTS

Soil moisture and organic carbon exhibited statistically significant and positive correlation with the mite population in all the sites, while soil temperature and heavy metals showed weak or strong negative effect in most instances. Interrelations between edaphic factors were also studied along with mite population which indicated negative impact of moisture on metal content in many instances (Tables 1-4).

Site-wise observation on correlation between mite population and physicochemical factors:

Site-I: Soil temperature showed no significant correlation with the abundance, while moisture and organic carbon exhibited strong positive correlation (p<0.05). pH was also positively correlated with the abundance (p<0.01). Heavy metals (lead, zinc and copper) showed significant negative impact (p<0.05) (Table 1).

Site-II: Temperature exhibited no significant relationship with population. Soil moisture and organic carbon had positive correlation (p<0.01). Lead and zinc exhibited significant negative effect on abundance (p<0.05). pH and copper showed no significant correlation with the same (Table 2).

Site-III: Temperature exhibited strong negative correlation (p<0.05). Soil moisture (p<0.01) and organic carbon (p<0.05) exhibited significant positive effect on the abundance, whereas for pH, lead and zinc, negative correlations (p<0.05) were observed. Copper showed no significant correlation with the abundance (Table 3).

Site-IV: Soil temperature showed significant negative correlation (p<0.05) with the population abundance. Lead and zinc also exhibited significant negative impact (p<0.05). Soil moisture (p<0.05) and organic carbon (p<0.01) showed positive correlation with the abundance, while pH and copper showed no significant correlation with the same (Table 4).

Regression Analysis (Regression Lines and Multiple Regression):

Equations of regression lines depicting interrelationships between edaphic factors and population abundance of mites were worked out and lines were drawn to see the extent of impact of the factors separately (Figs. 1-4). Besides multiple regression analysis were also performed to investigate the collective impact of the factors (Table 5).

Site-wise observations on Regression Lines and Multiple Regression Analysis:

Site-I: The regression lines had negative slope for temperature, lead, zinc and copper and for the rest, the slope was positive. The  adjusted R2  (Coefficient of determination) ranged from 8.3% (organic carbon) to 48.5% (pH) (Fig. 1).

Multiple regression equation taking abundance of mites as response and seven physicochemical factors were prepared. R2 value (Coefficient of determination) indicated that the predictors might explain up to 70.9% of variance of the response (mite population).  The  R2  adjusted for the number of predictors in the model was 63.6% (Table 5). 

Site-II: The slopes of regression lines were negative for temperature, pH, lead, zinc and copper and positive for the rests. The  adjusted R2   showed a range from 5.4% (copper) to 30.4% (moisture) (Fig. 2).

In multiple regression analysis, R2 value indicated. It showed that the predictors might explain up to 43.3% variance of the abundance of mites, while, 36.6% was the  adjusted R2   (Table 5).

            Site-III: Positive slopes of regression lines were noticed for soil moisture, organic carbon and copper. Individual factors could explain 1.9% (copper) to 48.5% (soil moisture) of variation of population as the adjusted R2 suggested (Fig. 3).

In multiple regression analysis, R2 value shows that the predictors may explain up to 66.7% of variance of the response while  the  adjusted R2  was 58.4% (Table 5).

Site-IV: The slopes of regression lines were negative for temperature, lead, and zinc and positive for the rests. Selected factors, taken separately, could explain from 0.4% (copper) to 40.1% (organic carbon) of variance of abundance data as the  adjusted R2 showed (Fig. 4). R2 value in the multiple regression analysis indicated that the predictors explained upto 59.5% variance of the response while  the  adjusted R2  became 49.3% (Table 5). 

DISCUSSION

Negative impact of temperature on mite population is a common observation in West Bengal and earlier reported by workers like Sengupta and Sanyal (1991), Sanyal (1996), Sanyal et al. (1999), Roy et al. (2004). In other parts of India, Singh and Yadava (1998) and Chitrapati and Singh (2006) recorded positive interaction in Manipur while negative correlation was observed by Tripathi et al. (2007) at Thar Desert, Rajasthan. Significant positive correlation with temperature however was reported by Choudhuri and Pande (1981) in Darjeeling Himalayas, while some workers reported the same in other parts of West Bengal (Sanyal, 1981b, 1982; Sanyal and Bhaduri, 1982; Sanyal, 1991a). Of them however, significant positive correlation was reported only by Sanyal (1981b). Negative correlation in Darjeeling was recorded by Choudhuri and Pande (1979, 1981) and Ghosh and Roy (2004).

Significant positive correlation between the soil moisture and the mite populations in the present study was in agreement with several studies conducted earlier (Choudhuri and Pande, 1979; Joy and Bhattacharya1981; Sanyal, 1981a, 1981b, 1982; Sanyal and Bhaduri, 1982; Banerjee, 1988; Sheela and Haq, 1991; Sanyal et al., 1999). Choudhuri and Pande (1979, 1981) and Ghosh and Roy (2004) however reported significant negative correlation with moisture in the Darjeeling Himalayas. Besides, Sarkar (1991), Sengupta and Sanyal (1991), Sanyal and Sarkar (1993) and Roy et al., (2004) also recorded similar observations in other parts of West Bengal. Singh and Yadava (1998) and Chitrapati and Singh (2006) recorded positive interaction in Manipur and Tripathi et al. (2007) observed the same at Thar Desert, Rajasthan.

Impact of organic carbon on mite populations was significantly positive at all sites. This is in conformity with the earlier observations made in this region (Choudhuri and Pande, 1979, 1981, 1982; Ghosh and Roy, 2004) and other places in West Bengal (Banerjee, 1974b; Bhattacharya and Raychaudhuri, 1979; Joy and Bhattacharya, 1981; Sanyal, 1981a, 1981b, 1982, 1991b; Sanyal et al., 1999; Roy et al., 2004). Chitrapati and Singh (2006) recorded positive correlation in Manipur and the same was observed at Thar Desert, Rajasthan by Tripathi et al. (2007). Negative impact of carbon on acarines however was reported by Chattopadhyay and Hazra (2000) at a few sites in Kolkata when studying the effect of sewage effluents on arthropods.

pH exhibited a varying relationship with mites in the present work. At Site-I the effect was strongly positive, at Site-III significant negative interaction was observed for total mites, correlation was weak at other sites. Different mode of interactions between the mite populations and soil pH has also been reported from various other studies. Bhattacharya and Raychaudhuri (1979), Sanyal (1981b), Sanyal and Sarkar (1993), Sanyal et al., (1999), Roy et al. (2004) and Tripathi et al., (2007) observed negative correlation, while Joy and Bhattacharya (1981), Sanyal (1981a) and Sarkar (1991) reported either weak or significant positive impact of pH. Choudhuri and Pande (1979, 1981, 1982), and Ghosh and Roy (2004) reported negative correlation with pH at different sites in the Darjeeling Himalayas, West Bengal.

Negative impact of heavy metals on the diversity and the abundance of soil organisms including mite is a common observation as it is evidenced from various studies (Dindal et al., 1975; Hazra and Choudhuri, 1990; Posthuma and van Straalen, 1993; Gergocs and Hufnagel, 2009; Tyokumbur, 2016; Skubala et al., 2016; Manu et al., 2017). There are however some different observations too (Denneman and Van Straalen, 1991; Gackowski et al., 1997; Skubala and Kafel, 2004). Lead and zinc rendered significant negative impact in almost all the instances in the present study while copper exhibited only weak correlation in many cases. Hazra and Choudhuri (1990) reported detrimental effect of lead and copper on mites in West Bengal. Negative effect of lead and copper on the acarine populations was reported by Chattopadhyay and Hazra (2000) at various sites at Kolkata. Hågvar and Abrahamsen (1990) showed that although increasing lead concentration decreased species richness, there were only slight changes in total abundance because the density of several species had grown. High Cu concentration has adverse effects on abundance, growth, and activity of soil fungi which are an essential trophic resource for soil microarthropods including various taxa of mites (Siepel and De Ruiter-Dijkman, 1993; Kuperman and Carreiro, 1997; Gadd et al., 2001) and the negative impact of copper on mites may be functional in this way.

Zaitsev and van Straalen (2001) observed that the mite community as a whole was tolerant to the contamination of heavy metals like lead, zinc and copper by a metallurgical plant. Skubala and Kafel (2004) observed that despite the high Zn concentrations, there was no significant decrease in density compared to the control and thus it could be concluded that Zn does not have a significant effect on this group. Similar result was obtained by Hågvar and Abrahamsen (1990). Skubala et al. (2016) observed positive correlation between the Zn content of oribatid mites and their microhabitat which indicate that the group is prone to bioaccumulation of this metal. Other edaphic factors like moisture, pH etc. are also important and should be taken into consideration while investigating the effects of heavy metals on mite population (Steiner, 1995).

For all the edaphic factors cited above, there should be an optimum range favourable for soil organisms including mites, below or above of which the factor may render detrimental effect on the organisms. Different species have their respective physiological needs and range of tolerance for those factors. The qualitative or quantitative characters of the factors at a given site however, may not always develop as per the biological need. Different studies with same components (either organisms or environmental factors or both remaining same) at different time and place may produce different outcome for the above uncertainty. Further, the factors may or may not remain interlinked and may produce combined effect with greater impact of some more important factors.

CONSLUSION

In the control site, i.e., the forest floor, the mode and the extent of impact of the selected factors differed conspicuously from rest of the sites. The acarine community of the sites with polluted or disturbed habitats however appeared to be affected in a more or less similar pattern in spite of their differentiable mode of perturbations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author conveys his sincere gratitude to the then director of Zoological Survey of India and Dr. Asok Kanti Sanyal, Scientist-F, ZSI for providing laboratory support and literature. The author is also thankful to the staff of the Acarology section of ZSI, New Alipore, Kolkata. Further, the author acknowledges the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The author is also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Source of Funding: Nil.

Conflict of Interest: The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

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  55. Zaitsev AS, van Straalen NM. Species diversity and metal accumulation in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of forests affected by a metallurgical plant. Pedobiologia, 2001; 45(5): 467-479.

 

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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