International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 09 issue 10 current issue , May, 2017

Pages: 44-48

Date of Publication: 27-May-2017

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates from Clinical Specimens in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

Author: Onukwube Cyril Chinedu, Agbakoba Nneka Regina, Egwuatu Chukwudi Charles, Aghanya Iloduba Nnaemeka

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is emerging rapidly worldwide. The accurate and prompt identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is a key to limiting the spread of these bacteria. Increasingly, Klebsiella bacteria have developed antibiotic resistance most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems.
Aim: The study was done to detect carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia isolates from clinical specimens in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria.
Methodology: K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were collected and processed at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Medical Microbiology and Parasitology laboratory from August 2012 to February 2013. Fifty-two Klebsiella pneumoniae recovered from different specimens namely; wound swabs (14), urine (26), sputum (7), and endocervical swab/high vaginal swab (5) were analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was determined by agar disc diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Modified Hodge test (MHT) was carried out on clinical isolates that showed reduced disc sizes to carbapenem and resistant to the third generation cephalosporin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect the presence of blaKPC gene. Results: Antibiotics susceptibility results revealed that meropenem and Imipenem showed the highest sensitivity (100%) against the isolates tested. Ertapenem showed 94.2% sensitivity. K. pneumoniae was isolated more from female patients 30(57.7%) than from male patients 22(42.3%). The result of the single PCR also revealed the absence of blaKPC gene. The PCR and MHT results showed strong consistency when compared.
Conclusion: Care must be taken in the prescription and administration of carbapenem as it is the last resort for many bacterial infection. Infection control policies should be strictly adhered to.

Keywords: K. Pneumonia, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), Parasitology, Carbapenem

Full Text:


Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines (Ryan and Ray, 2004).

K. pneumoniae is an important cause of human infections or diseases which are usually nosocomial or hospital-acquired. Diseases caused by K. pneumoniae include; urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemia, and soft tissue infections (Podschun and Ullmann, 1998). The diseases caused by K. pneumoniae can result in death for patients who are immunodeficient. Capsular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide O side chain are two of the most important virulence factors of K. pneumoniae (Cortés et al., 2002).

Increasingly, Klebsiella bacteria have developed antibiotic resistance most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems (LA County Department of Public Health, 2010). Detection of carbapenemase-producing isolates in the microbiology laboratory is difficult (Tenover et al., 2006). Acquisition of a blaKPC gene alone does not always confer resistance to carbapenems, as defined by current breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Some KPC isolates show low-level resistance to carbapenems; with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (2 to 4 µg/mL) or with reduced disk zone diameters but within the susceptible range.

Emergence of carbapenem resistance in health care settings is increasingly attributed to the production of β-lactamases capable of hydrolysing carbapenems (Bilavsky et al., 2010). Carbapenemases are sub-class of β-lactamase enzymes that are classified by their specific resistant mechanisms, (such as AmpC and others), this research will concentrate on Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). The KPC enzyme confers resistance to all β-lactam agents including penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems (Smith et al., 2003; Alba et al., 2005).

KPC represents an emerging bacterial resistance mechanism and is currently more prevalent in the north-eastern part of the U.S. (New York, New Jersey and Maryland), although it has been seen with more frequency in other parts of the country (Martin et al., 2010). KPC-producing bacteria have also caused outbreaks in Israel and recently have become an emerging public health concerns in several regions worldwide, such as China, Latin America and Greece (Nordmann et al., 2009). Though there have been increasingly, reported cases of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae worldwide, there is limited data in Africa. We decided to carry out this research due to the high incidence of medical tourism by Nigerians in places where KPC has been reported. Therefore, this work was centred on detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase as it is the prevalent and most documented mechanism of resistance by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Given the limited therapeutic options available, the accurate detection of KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae is crucial in controlling its spread. The current guidelines for the phenotypic detection of KPC-producing organisms in US hospitals are based on reduced susceptibility to carbapenems, which has to be confirmed by the Modified Hodge Test (MHT) (CLSI, 2009).


Isolates Collection and Identification

Out of 702 bacterial isolates examined from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Medical Microbiology and Parasitology laboratory Nnewi, 52 were isolated as presumptive K. pneumoniae. Isolates were collected from urine, sputum, wound swab, high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples. The collected isolates were processed using standard routine Microbiological methods. Isolation was done by sub-culturing the presumptive K. pneumoniae on MacConkey and EMB (Eosin Methylene Blue) agars. The plates were incubated at 37oC for 24hours. Confirmation of K. pneumoniae was based on morphology, gram staining and standard biochemical tests.

Antibiotics susceptibility testing

Antibiotics susceptibility testing was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI, 2009).  

The standard commercial disks used and their concentrations are as follows: Ciprofloxacin (5µg), Imipenem (10µg), Ceftazidime (30µg), Cefotaxime (30µg), (Abtek biological, UK), Ertapenem (10µg), Aztreonam (30µg), Piperacillin/Tazobactam (10µg), Gentamicin (10µg), and Cefepime (30µg), (Oxoid, UK), Meropenem (10µg) (Mast Diagnostics ltd, UK).

Three to five discrete colonies of K. pneumoniae isolates selected from an 18-24hour agar plate were touched with a sterile wire loop and suspended in 5ml of sterile saline in a bijou bottle. The suspension was mixed thoroughly to obtain a homogenous mixture. The turbidity of the suspension was then adjusted to match the 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard.

Each of the isolates was uniformly and aseptically inoculated into a well dried Mueller-Hinton agar, in plates by spread plate method, as follows; a sterile swab stick was dipped in the suspension, squeezed by the side of the bottle before streaking over the sensitivity plates. The appropriate antibiotic discs were placed aseptically on the agar using sterile forceps. Inoculated plates were incubated at 37°C for 18-24hours after which the diameters of the inhibition zones were measured and recorded (as susceptible, intermediate or resistant). All susceptibility tests were carried out in duplicates. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 was used as control strain.

Modified Hodge Test

This is a phenotypic test which could be used to determine if reduced susceptibility to carbapenems is mediated by a carbapenemase. It’s the most easily performed confirmatory test for KPCs.

Modified Hodge test (MHT) was performed first by streaking a susceptible Escherichia coli isolate on a Mueller-Hinton plate, after which a carbapenem disk (Meropenem) was placed on the centre. Isolates suspected of carbapenemase production then were streaked from the disk to the outer margin of the plate. This test was also repeated in duplicates. Quality control was performed using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA 1705.

Molecular Analysis

DNA Amplification

Polymerase Chain Reaction (using the PCR machine; PTC-200 BY MJ Research) was carried out to detect the presence of blaKPC gene. The primers used are as follows; blaKPC-F1: TCGCTAAACTCGAACAGG and blaKPC-R1: TTACTGCCCGTTGACGCCCAATCC. The PCR reaction system contained 0.1-1.0µM for each primer. Cycling parameters were; initial denaturation at 93oC for 3 minutes, followed by 35 cycles of 1 minute at 93oC, 30 seconds at 56oC, and 1 minute 30 seconds at 72oC. The PCR amplification was ended by a final extension at 72oC for 10 minutes.   


Of the 702 bacterial isolates analyzed for the presence of K. pneumoniae, 52 were identified as K. pneumoniae. Sources of the isolated K. pneumoniae were; wound swab 14(26.9%), urine 26(50.0%), sputum 7(13.5%), and ECS/HVS 5(9.6%), as shown in Table 4.1. The prevalence of K. pneumoniae clinical isolates was found to be 7.4%.

Table 4.1 shows the percentage distribution of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples from NAUTH.

Table 4.2 outlined the percentage distribution of K. pneumoniae amongst male and female patients.

Fig. 4.1 shows the age distribution of K. pneumoniae amongst male and female patients in NAUTH. Among the male patients, age interval of 40-49 was the modal class, while the mean was 39.95. The modal class for the female patients was 50-59 while the mean was 45.83.

The Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the 52 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates was evaluated. Table 4.3 shows the results of the test.

10(19.2%) clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae that showed reduced susceptibility and resistance to third generation cephalosporin were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect if blaKPC gene was present. Plate 1: shows the result. BlaKPC gene was not detected from the K. pneumoniae isolates tested.


With the increased dependence on carbapenem antibiotics, KPCs are a major public health concern. Bacterial isolates producing KPCs are able to hydrolyze a broad spectrum of β-lactams including the penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams. They have the potentials to spread rapidly in hospital environments to cause nosocomial infections with high mortality rates (Hirsch and Tam, 2010). Carbapenems are a class of β-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. They are one of the antibiotics of last resort for many bacterial infections, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Smith, 2010).

In this study, a total of 52 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from 702 clinical bacterial isolates. Sources of K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were as follows; wound swab, urine, sputum, and ECS/HVS. K. pneumoniae was predominantly isolated from urine samples 26(50%) followed by wound swab 14(26.9%), then sputum and ECS/HVS 7(13.5%) and 5(9.6%) respectively. This result conforms to the research done by Jombo et al., (2011) who reported urine specimen to have the highest number of Klebsiella isolates followed by wound swab or pus, sputum and then ECS/HVS. Iroha et al., (2011), reported that out of 390 samples collected, K. pneumoniae was isolated from 150 samples (urine 72, HVS 12, wound swab 16, and sputum 50). In their research, urine specimen constituted the largest number of K. pneumoniae isolates. Sarathbabu et al., (2012), also isolated K. pneumoniae predominantly from urine samples in hospitalised patients in India. K. pneumoniae is an opportunistic bacterium which affects the elderly and the immunocompromised. Therefore, the isolation of K. pneumoniae more frequently from urine specimen could be due to the presence of indwelling devices such as catheter in patients associated with the diseases. Presence of these devices in the body leads to the adherence of Gram-negative organisms such as Klebsiella on the surfaces of these devices which eventually promotes the establishment and development of the disease. Unlike the mucous membrane which serves as the first line of defence against bacteria and other pathogens, these invasive devices do not have such protective properties rather, it predisposes one to infections.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that all K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to meropenem and Imipenem (100% sensitivity each). Fifty (94.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates showed susceptibility to ertapenem. High antimicrobial drug susceptibility pattern was also observed among other antimicrobial drugs used; Cefepime 51(98.1%), Piperacillin/tazobactam 46(88.5%), Aztreonam 39(75%), Gentamycin 43(82.75), Ceftazidime 49(94.2%), Cefotaxime 50(96.2%), and Ciprofloxacin 45(86.2%). This result is similar to that reported by Iroha et al., (2011), who in their research reported resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents such as chloramphenicol and ampicillin while carbapenems, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and monobactam showed greater sensitivity. This result is an indication that the antimicrobial drugs used in this study have not been grossly misused in this environment.

Varying degree of resistance (1-3 of the antimicrobial drugs used) was observed among the K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. Aztreonam showed highest resistance (19.2%) while lowest antimicrobial drug resistance was observed in cefepime (1.9%) and ertapenem (1.9%). It is worthy of note here that ertapenem non-susceptibility is not specific for carbapenemase production especially in areas where carbapenemase production is uncommon (Woodford et al., 2007). Among the carbapenems, K. pneumoniae showed no resistance to meropenem and imipenem. However, (1.9%) resistance and moderate susceptibility (1.9%) was observed in ertapenem. Meropenem and ertapenem is a more sensitive indicator than imipenem for the detection of KPC (CLSI) using disc diffusion.

Results from this research showed that K. pneumoniae infection was observed more in female patients (57.7%) than in their male counterpart (42.3%). The age distribution amongst the male patients showed that the age interval of 40-49 occurred more frequently (27.3%) and therefore, is the modal class while the mean was calculated to be 39.95. Amongst the female patients, the modal class was observed to be 50-59 while the calculated mean was 45.83. Age distribution pattern of subjects infected with K. pneumoniae ranged from 7months to 87years. There was no statistical significant difference between the distribution of K. pneumoniae isolates amongst male and female patients.

The outcome of the single PCR amplification showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase was not detected among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in NAUTH. Comparing the Modified Hodge Test (MHT) result and that of PCR, one can observe that both results showed 100% sensitivity for the detection of KPC activity. This finding is consistent with those of Lijun et al., (2012). Here Lijun and associates investigated the presence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase genes from 159 clinical Gram-negative isolates resistant to several classes of β-lactam antibiotics. The sensitivity and specificity of MHT by this result have shown to exceed 90%; however, several reports have noted the occurrence of false positive results when the MHT was used to detect carbapenemase in ESBL-producing isolates (Carvalhaes et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011). The absence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in NAUTH Medical Microbiology and Parasitology Laboratory as of the time of this research could be as a result of the exorbitant prices of carbapenems which makes them not to be readily availability, and therefore not easily misused.


Based on the outcome of this study, Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated a high resistance to Aztreonam and Gentamycin compared to other antimicrobial drugs used. Therefore, care must be taken in the prescription and administration of these antimicrobial agents. Strict infection control policies (such as hand washing hygiene, use of gowns, contact precautions etc) should be put in place to control the growing incidence of antibiotics resistance. Antimicrobial drugs should be bought only from certified local manufacturers and importers. This will help to reduce the high level of counterfeit drugs in the country. Proper education of the public through jingles and adverts should also be considered to discourage self-medication. With the outcome of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), one can conclude that if these antimicrobial agents are used judiciously, it will go a long way in providing the desired treatment efficiencies and at the same time minimising resistance.


We sincerely acknowledge the technical assistance of the laboratory scientists and resident doctors in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria. We also acknowledge all the scholars whose articles are cited and included in the references of this manuscript. We are equally grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Source of funding: None

Conflict of interest: Nil



Alba, J., Ishii, Y., Thomson, K., Moland, E.S., and Yamaguchi, K. (2005). Kinetics study of KPC-3, a plasmid-encoded class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamase.         Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; 49: 4760-4762.

Bilavsky, E., Schwaber, M.J., and Carmeli, Y. (2010). How to stem the tide of      carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae?: proactive versus reactive strategies. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases; 23: 327-331.

Carvalhaes, C.G., Picao, R.C., Nicoletti, A.G., Xavier, D.E., and Gales, A.C. (2010).        Cloverleaf test (modified Hodge test) for detecting carbapenemase production in  Klebsiella pneumoniae: be aware of false positive results. Journal of Antimicrobial         Chemotherapy; 65: 249-251

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2009). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Nineteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100- S19.  Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Cortés, G., Borrell, N., De-astorza, B., Gómez, C., Sauleda, J., and Albertí, S. (2002). "Molecular Analysis of the Contribution of the Capsular Polysaccharide and the  Lipopolysaccharide O Side Chain to the Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in a     Murine Model of Pneumonia". Infection and Immunity; 70(5): 2583-2590.

Hirsch, B., and Tam, V.H. (2010). Detection and treatment options for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs): an emerging cause of multidrug infection.   Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy; 65: 1119-1125.

Iroha, I.R., Oji, A.E., and Ayogu, T.E. (2011). Analysis of Antibiotic susceptibility of       Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from different clinical specimens in Enugu   state. International Journal of Current Research; 2(1): 8-14.

Jumbo, G.T.A., Emanghe, U.E., Akpan, S., and Bolarin, D.M. (2011). Klebsiella infections and Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in the 21st century: A Paradigm shift. Asian   journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences; 1(4): 204-208.

LA county Department of Public Health (2010). Acute communicable disease control: carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Retrieved November 15, 2012 from   

Lijun, W., Haitong, G., and Xinxin, L. (2012). A Rapid Low-cost Real-time PCR for the Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Genes. Annals of Clinical         Microbiology and Antimicrobials; 11(9): 1-6.

Martin, G.J., and Friedlander, A.M. (2010). Anthrax as an agent of bioterrorism. In: Mandell G.L., Bennett, J.E. and Dolin, R. editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone    Elsevier. 3983-3992.

Nordmann, P., Cuzon, G., and Naas, T. (2009). The real threat of Klebsiella pneumoniae   carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Lancet Infection Disease; 9: 228–236.

Podschun, R. and Ullmann, U. (1998). "Klebsiella spp. as Nosocomial Pathogens: Epidemiology, Taxonomy, Typing Methods, and Pathogenicity Factors". Clinical          Microbiology Reviews; 11(4): 589-603.

Ryan, K.J. and Ray, C.G. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Sarathbabu, R., Ramani, T.V., Bhaskara, R.K., and Supriya, P. (2012). Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from sputum, urine and pus  samples. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences; 1(2): 4-9.

Smith, M., Hanson, E.N.D., Herrera, V.L., Black, J.A., Lockhart, T. J., Hossain, A.,          Johnson, J. A., Goering, R.V., and Thomson, K. S. (2003). Plasmid-mediated,           carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase, KPC-2, in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.  Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy; 51: 711-714.

Smith, S. (2010). "Deadly bacteria's foothold spurs study: Mass. specialists try to halt spread". Retrieved December 5, 2012, from  drug_resistant_germs_spread/

Tenover, F.C., Kalsi, R.K., and Williams, P.P. (2006). Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae not detected by automated susceptibility testing. Emerging Infectious   Diseases; 12: 1209-1213.

Wang, P., Chen, S., Guo, Y., Xiong, Z., Hu, F., Zhu, D., and Zhang, Y. (2011). Occurrence of     false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. 6: 26356.

Woodford, N., Dallow, J.W., Hill, R.L., Palepou, M. F., Pike, R., Ward, M.E., Warner, M., and Livermore, D.M. (2007). Ertapenem resistance among Klebsiella and     Enterobacter submitted in the UK to a reference laboratory. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents; 29: 456-459.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2024 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions