International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 09 issue 10 current issue , May, 2017

Pages: 01-06

Date of Publication: 27-May-2017

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Land Use/Cover Mapping of Konkan Region, Maharashtra

Author: Arjun B. Doke

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:The land is used for different activity, such as agriculture, forests, mining, transport, settlement, entertaining and manufacturing. The unused lands are unproductive waste and i.e. barren and fallow (temporary and permanent) land. Green canopy plays an important role in maintain surface temperature and humidity. The present study land use and land cover was identified through exploratory analysis, done on the bases of multitemporal Landsat TM data. The final classification map provided the land use and land cover information. The ground truthing was used to assess the accuracy of the land use and land cover analysis. Three specific bands were used with reasonable success to correlate soil, wetness and vegetation. The present study the cropland covers the highest area 10814 square kilometer in percent 35.17. Dense forest cover second large area 5653 square kilometer in percent 18.39. The settlement covers the lowest area, which is 678 square kilometer in percent 2.18. Combinations of supervised and unsupervised classifications were conducted to define land cover and land use types for the study area. The resulting products of the exploratory analyses and classification were then used to assess spatial patterns of land cover and land use in the study area.

Keywords: Land use, Land cover, Remote sensing, Image classification, Konkan Region

Full Text:


The land is necessary for human survival because it’s available for
a human with living space (Bhagawat, 2011). The idea of depicting the use of land in a map was first conceived by Saucer in 1919. Stamp in Britain is given a contribution regarding land use mapping study. The concept of land use has been defined by Stamp in 1962. The land should fulfill all the necessary and legitimate needs of the nation (Stamp, 1930). According to Nanavati conservation of land is also connected with land use (Nanavati, 1951). This needs strong scientific, rational and economic preparation to use the available resource of land, on another side we have to maintain ecological and socio-economic balance (Mohammad, 1980). The land use and land cover are indispensable for human development (Doke, 2017).

The development in the remote sensing and Geographical Information System environment present day support to the change detection as well as monitoring of earth surface resources (Aher and Dalvi, 2012). The land use is the result of a combination of both natural genesis and human influences which have been brought to bear on it in the past and of those which are still active in the present (Vink, 1975). Satellite remote sensing imagery and it’s coupled in GIS environment for land use/land cover analysis is a key to many diverse applications such as environment, forestry, hydrology and agriculture (Parlhad and Deore, 2010). Any areas natural resource management watershed management (Deshmukh et al., 2012) planning and monitoring depend on accurate information about the land cover in a region. The accurate representation of terrestrial vegetation is a key requirement for global change research (Jung et al. 2006; Lambin et al. 2001).The vegetation map is an essential base map for managing natural resources as vegetation provides a base for all living beings and plays an essential role in affecting global climate change, such as influencing terrestrial CO2 (Xiao et al. 2004). In order to initiate vegetation protection and restoration programs, it is necessary to obtain the current status of vegetation cover (Egbert et al. 2002; He et al. 2005). The traditional methods such as field surveys, literature reviews, map interpretation and collateral and ancillary data analysis, are not effective to acquire land use and land cover because they are time consuming, date lagged and often too expensive. In recent decade remote sensing techniques are being widely used for land use and land cover mapping and change dictation (Boyd et al., 2003; Ingram, 2005; Lu et al., 2004; Maynard et al., 2007; Dadhwal et al., 2009) which measures the spectral reflectance of the land cover (Zianis et al., 2005).

The remotely sensed spectral signatures are used for understanding the nature of vegetation characteristics however, it is affected by various factors like vegetation composition, soil characteristics, atmospheric conditions, topography and moisture content (Chen and Wang, 2008). Remote sensing has been the only feasible way of acquiring vegetation information over vast areas at a reasonable cost and acceptable accuracy due to repetitive data collection at a feasible effort (Lu, 2006). The developments in sensor technology have allowed the acquisition of remotely sensed data at a various range of scales ranging from coarse spatial resolution of 500 m (e.g., NOAA AVHRR, MODIS) to medium spatial resolution of 20_30 m (e.g., Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+, SPOT HRVIR) as well as high spatial resolution of less than 5 m (e.g., Ikonos, Quick Bird, LIDAR, and others). The coarse spatial resolution optical sensors such as NOAA AVHRR (Dong et al., 2003) and MODIS (Baccini et al., 2004) have been useful for mapping vegetation at the global, continental, national and regional scale, because of spatial resolution, image coverage and high frequency in data acquisition (Lu, 2006).

The medium resolution satellite imagery such as Landsat TM is used at regional and at a local scale for vegetation mapping. The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) use in Land use and Land cover mapping (Hall et al., 2006; Heiskanen, 2006; Ingram, 2005; Lu, 2006; Lu et al., 2004). The thematic mapper (TM) is an advanced, multispectral scanning, earth resources sensor designed to achieve higher image resolution, sharper spectral interval, improved geometric fidelity, and greater radiometric accuracy and resolution than that of the MSS sensor.

Study Area:

Konkan Region is one of six administrative divisions of Maharashtra State in India. Konkan is the west division in the state, with an administrative headquarters in the city of Mumbai and it is also state capital as well as finical capital of India. Amravati and Nagpur divisions makeup the region of Vidarbha. The seven districts i.e. Mumbai City, Mumbai Suburban, Raigad(Alibag), Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Thane and Palghar (1stAugust 2014)is included in the Konkan Region shown in Figure 1. Total area is 36,740 square km, total population 28,739,397and literacy 98.88 percent.

The ‘Konkan’ is the narrow strip of the coastal land situated between Arabian Sea and Western Ghats escarpment. The famous Western Ghats is lying in the ‘Konkan’. ‘Damanganga’ River separating Maharashtra and Gujrat States forms the northern limit of ‘Konkan’. In the south it extends up to ‘Terekhol’ Creek. The ‘Konkan’ strip is extended for about 720 km in north-south direction and is a distinct physiographic region of the State. The ‘Konkan’ region forms dissected topography and its average East-West extension is 40-50 km which varies considerably within the coastal lowland and decreased from north to south (Karlekar, 2002). Width of the region decreases as one proceeds toward south. The widest stretch is about 110 km in Ulhas river basin in north Thane District (Jog et al., 2002). Elevation of most of the ‘Konkan’ lies below 200 m ASL. The area of ‘Konkan’ varies in lithology, geomorphic configuration, nature of hinterland and climate. ‘Konkan’ region of Maharashtra can be conveniently divided into North ‘Konkan’, Middle ‘Konkan’ and South ‘Konkan’. These division is based on Physico- climatic characteristics of the region suggested by Dikshit (1986).


To classification of Land Use and Land Cover using Remote Sensing Data in Konkan Region.

Materials and Methods:

Landsat TM FCC (bands 4, 3 and 2, scale 1: 50,000, December, 2016) were used for this study. Using Erdas Imagine software 14, downloaded Landsat images were mosaiced together and  Project to UTMWGS 84 coordinate system. The study area was extracted by subsetting from the whole image. The flowchart of the research methodology can be divided into five stages: (i)preparation of reference maps for gathering the existing and relevant information in the spatial form, (ii) pre-field classification of the satellite data, (iii) ground truthing, (iv)post-field correction and (v) field verification of the final map. The spectral variation of each vegetation type was extracted from digital data by interpreting satellite images based on the interpretation elements such as the image color, texture, tone, pattern and association information etc. The standard "falsecolor" composite. Vegetation looks in shades of red. Coniferous trees will seem darker red than hardwoods. For land cover and land use study, this is a very standard band combination. Typically dark red color indicates healthy vegetation covers including wide leaf and light red color indicates sparsely vegetated land cover which includes grass land areas. Diverse methods have been developed to do this. Those methods can be broadly grouped into unsupervised classification or supervised classification depending on whether or not true ground data are inputted as references (table 1). The flow chart of the research methodology is shown in Figure 2.

Result and Discussion:

The entire area of the study is almost flat only north western part is hilly. Figure 3 represent the physical division of the study area. The vegetation map inferred from image classification is considered accurate if it provides a true representation of the region it portrays (Foody 2002; Weber 2006). The rectified Landsat TM scenes covering districts were analyzed to generate the vegetation map. All the major forest classes (viz. dense forest, open forest, scrubs) were classified. Along with forest, other land use/cover classes (viz. cropland, fallow land, wetland, settlement and water bodies) found in the Konkan Region. Table 1 gives the statistics of the study area generated from the classified output of the Landsat TM data. Table 2 shows the spatial extent of land cover in square kilometer and in percentages.

The total forest area is 43.72 (13440 square km) percent of the total geographical area of the Konkan Region. The moist dense forest constitutes the bulk of the total forest area and was found in around the west side of Western Ghat (fig.4). Open forest covers 2732 square km (8.89 Percent) and Scrubs cover 5055 square km (16.44 Percent). Agriculture covers the larger area of Konkan region 10814 square km (35.17 Percent).

Wetland cover the small area around 879 square km (2.86 Percent). The water bodies cover 2.43 percent (746 square km) area. Open land and scrub land covers an area of 16.44 per cent. The table 2, gives the land use/cover statistics of Konkan Region generated from the classified output of the Landsat TM data. The main tree species of this forest are Ain (Terminalia tomentosa), Jambha (Xylia dolabriformis), Kinjal (Terminalia paniculata), Sagwan (Tectona grandis), Surangi (Mammeasuriga), Kokam (Garcinia indica), Kumbha (Careya arbprea), Karmal (Dillenia pentagyna), Amba (Mangifera Indica), Bibba (Semecarpus anacardium), Asana (Bridelia

retusa), Anjani (Memocylon umbellatum ), Shisham (Dalbergia latifolia), and Khair (Acacia catechu . At several locations, the forests were found in the varying stages of degradation. The output classified map is shown in Figure 4. The accuracy assessment in the first stage is done by visual inspection of derived maps; however, the method is highly subjective and often not
accurate. The second stage is more objective methods in which comparisons of the area extents of the classes in the derived thematic maps (e.g. the percentage of a specific vegetation group in the area) are made with the corresponding extents on ground or in other reference datasets. Accuracy assessment for the forest mapping was done with randomly selected sample distribution points on the ground and tallied with represented data. The classification was validated with 180 randomly selected sample points. The total accuracy of the forest cover mapping, therefore, comes to be 82.12%. The discrepancy in the forest area may be due to time on which the satellite data for the present study was acquired.


The present study demonstrated the effective role of the spatial technologies in land use and cover types. The results of land use and cover mapping from remote sensing imagery represent well with the actual land cover community composition. The optimal use of satellite imagery in land use and cover mapping is effective when it is complemented with fieldwork. When selecting a right vegetation classification system for better classification accuracy, the following points should be taken into consideration (i) refining class definitions to decrease ambiguity, (ii) adding sufficient number of new classes to describe the complexity of local vegetation patterns and (iii) using a higher level of classification (Rapp et al. 2005). To map vegetation under such circumstances various difficulties are often encountered hence it is better to adopt more advanced image classification method such as sub-pixel analysis (Lee and Lathrop 2005). Another solution is to choose higher resolutions of imagery so as to increase the distinguishable possibility in image classification (Cingolani et al. 2004), however higher resolutions of imagery will most likely increase the cost. Though there are some standard methods for image preprocessing, however, there are no super image classifiers that can be uniformly applicable to all applications, hence it is hot research topic, to apply effective classifiers or to develop new powerful classifiers suitable for specific applications. The present study can be used as baseline information for policy and decision makers to develop sound management strategies for effective natural resource management as well as regional planning for the study area (Konkan Region).




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A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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