International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 16, August, 2013

Pages: 15-19

Date of Publication: 28-Aug-2013


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TO STUDY DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT BY FOOT LENGTH IN FEMALES

Author: Deepak SuntnooreSaranabasavappa Karaddi, Prakash Babladi, Anand Mugadlimath , Santosh S Garampalli , Basavaraj S Patil

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The present study was carried out in Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga. Total of 100 female students from 1st semester to 5th semester are included in the study. Individual student's foot length and stature are taken separately. The length of foot is measured from outer most margin of heel to the tip of extension of longest toe in both the feet with the help of a verniers caliper and it is recorded in centimeters. In the present study a significant correlation of stature with right and left foot length has been observed (P< 0.01). The results show that there is no statistically significant difference in right and left foot length in female students (P>0.05). Either right or left foot length may be used to predict the stature by regression formula. Regression equations are derived separately for individual foot length. Estimation of stature from foot length is easy, economical and convenient. No specialized equipment or training is required.

Keywords: Foot length, P value, stature, verniers caliper

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Though there are several parameters which help in identifying a person, stature of an individual is one of the important parameter, as it is an inherent characteristic. There is an established relationship between stature and dimensions of various parts of the body allowing the Forensic expert to estimate the stature from available data. Many studies have been carried out to estimate the stature from different body parts like arm length, fore arm length, hand and finger length, length of long bones, foot and shoe lengths etc. Linear regression models are widely used to predict height of an individual on the basis of their body parts1 . Examination of footprint provides important evidence in a crime scene investigation as it helps in the estimation of stature of a criminal. Significant and positive correlation coefficient has been shown to exist between stature and measurements of foot prints. Ossification of bones of foot occurs earlier than that of long bones of lower extremities. Even during adolescent age, the height can be predicted more accurately from foot measurements than long bones of lower limb. Taken together, evidences suggest that relationship between foot length and stature is of practical use in medico legal cases, anthropology and archeological studies; when such evidence is provided to the investigator, it helps to establish the individual’s physical description. Footprints are also used for identifying newborn babies in hospitals. Analysis of bare footprints is often carried out in the developing countries where the footprints are frequently recovered at the crime scene. In most of the countries, a footprint record is maintained for all the air-force flying personnel since feet often resist destruction (often shoe clad) by aircraft accidents, fires etc2 . Foot prints and shoe prints are different forms of physical evidence which have tremendous values in tropical country like India. Footprints have been accepted as evidence of identification in courts of many countries.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To study the relation between human foot length and stature in females.

2. To compare between the stature estimation by right foot length and stature estimation from the left foot length females.

METHODOLOGY
The present study was carried out in Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga. Total of 100 female students from 1st semester to 5th semester are included in the study. The aim and objective of the intended study were properly explained to all the students and consent is taken on the proforma. Individual student’s foot length and stature are taken separately. The length of foot is measured from outer most margin of heel to the tip of extension of longest toe in both the feet with the help of a verniers caliper and it is recorded in centimeters. Each student is asked to stand bare feet in anatomical position on the floor with her heel and occiput touching to the wall where markings for measuring the height are already made. Student is instructed not to move the head while measuring the height. A thin cardboard is kept horizontally at the vertex of the head. The height is measured from heel to the horizontal cardboard in centimeters. With this foot length, height of the individual is calculated with the help of regression formula. The calculated height is compared with the actual height of the individual and the results are encouraging. Any student with abnormality of foot/lower limb or any spinal deformities are not included in the study.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
RFL – Right foot length, Min Ht – Minimum height, Max Ht – Maximum height, Avg Ht – Average height, SD – Standard Deviation The average height of 100 female students with corresponding various levels of right foot length is presented in table-1. A linear correlation and regression analysis was done on data obtained from 100 girls for assessing the relationship between right foot length with stature and estimation of height for different levels of right foot lengths. In our study the maximum number of female students had right foot length of 22-23cms in which there were 34 individuals and average height in these girls was 163.6cms with Standard Deviation of 6.14 as shown in this table. In 100 girls we studied, right foot length varied from 20-25cms. The average height in girls with right foot length of 20-21cms was 152.87cms, which increased to 170.77cms with maximum right foot length of 24-25cms showing a positive correlation between the right foot length and stature. Table-2 shows left footprint length and actual height of 100 female students. Linear correlation and regression analysis were done for assessing the relationship between left foot length with height in 100 female students and for estimation of stature for different levels of left foot length. In this study the maximum number of 33 girls had left foot length of 22-23cms, and their mean height is 163.54cms. with Standard Deviation of 6.77cms. Average height of female students with corresponding various levels of left foot length is represented. Left foot length among these girls ranged from 20- 25cms. It can be seen that height of the girls increases as the left foot length increases, showing positive correlation between the two parameters.

Average height was 153.55cms for left foot length of 20-21cms which increased to 172.57cms with maximum left foot length 24-25cms. Table-3 shows correlation between right foot length, left foot length, and height in 100 female students. From the analysis it was revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between right foot length and left foot length (r = +0.88 for both RFL and LFL) with stature. The difference in correlation coefficient is statistically significant (P 0.05). Correlation and regression analysis were applied to know the relationship between right foot length with stature and left foot length with stature. An attempt is made to predict the stature from a known right or left foot length. Following points can be observed from the present study: ? There is no statistically significant difference in right and left foot length. ? Stature can be determined by right or left foot length separately in females. ? There is no statistically significant difference in stature estimated by right foot length and left foot length. The present study is statistically significant (P<0.01) and shows that height can be predicted by regression equation by known foot lengths in females. DISCUSSION Theodoros B Grivas3 (2008) stated that right foot length and left foot length are independent predictor of stature. These findings are supported by the present study. Abraham Philip4 estimated stature from known foot size by regression method. In the present study regression equations are derived to predict stature separately for right foot length and left foot length for both sexes. In a study by Devesh V (2006)5 correlation coefficient (r) of 0.698 for males, 0.738 in females and 0.848 in combined group was obtained between stature and left foot length . In present study, correlation coefficient obtained separately for right foot and left foot in females. Correlation coefficient is + 0.8 for right foot for left foot in females. Deopa Deep6 (2010) also observed a significant and positive correlation between foot length and height in individuals of Uttarakhand region. The results of the present study are quite encouraging and would ultimately help the investigating officer and Forensic experts to estimate stature of a person by foot length. In fact the aim of taking present study was to help the concerned authorities to restrict their field of investigation by including or excluding few subjects from the list of suspects. Investigating officer sometimes depend on the eye witnesses to get rough idea about the height of the person which is not reliable. If footprint length is available at the scene of crime stature could be predicted. This study has proved that stature could be predicted by a known footprint length.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
In the present study right foot length, left foot length and heights of 100 female students studying in M.R. Medical College are taken. Though there are several parameters which help in identifying a person, stature of an individual is one of the important parameter, as it is an inherent characteristic. There is an established relationship between stature and dimensions of various parts of the body allowing the Forensic expert to estimate the stature from available data. Many studies have been carried out to estimate the stature from different body parts like arm length, fore arm length, hand and finger length, length of long bones, foot and shoe lengths etc. Linear regression models are widely used to predict height of an individual on the basis of their body parts. Examination of foot provides important evidence in a crime scene investigation as it helps in the estimation of stature of a criminal. Significant and positive correlation coefficient has been shown to exist between stature and measurements of foot. In the present study a significant correlation of stature with right and left foot length has been observed (P0.05). Either right or left foot length may be used to predict the stature by regression formula. Regression equations are derived separately for individual foot length. Estimation of stature from foot length is easy, economical and convenient. No specialized equipment or training is required. Anthropologists, forensic experts and investigating officers may use this method to their added advantage. Thus this study is able to add another method to estimate the stature from foot length in male individuals.

References:

1. Peter Vanezis and Anthony Busuttil, Suspicious death scene investigation. Bare Foot and Shoe Print. 1996 March; 55-58.

2. Parikh CK, Personal Identification. Parikh’s text book of Medical Jurisprudence, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 6th ed, reprint 2008, New Delhi: CBS Publishers and distributors: p. 2.16

3. Theodoros B G, Mihas. Correlation of foot length with height in school age children. J Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2008 Feb; 15(2): 89-95.

4. Abraham Philip. Formulae for estimating stature from foot size by regression method. J IndAcadFor Med, 1990; 12 (2): 57-62.

5. Devesh V O, Kuruvilla A, Saralaya KM. Estimation of stature and sex from foot print length using regression formulae and standard foot print length formulae respectively. J Punjab Acad Forensic Med and Toxicol. 2006; Vol 6: p. 5-8

6. DeopaDeepa. Estimation of stature from foot length in Uttarakhand region. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxiclogy 2010; 4(1).

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A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
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A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
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A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
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A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
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A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
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A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
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A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
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A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
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A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
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A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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