International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: SCOPUS, Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 17, September, 2013

Pages: 16-23

Date of Publication: 12-Sep-2013

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF


Author: Devendra Pratap Singh Rajput, Priti Singh, S. B. Gupta, Samarth Shukla, Sourya Acharya, Rashmi Kumar

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Autoimmune retinopathy is a rare autoimmune disease that primarily affects retinal photoreceptor function. It mainly presents in the fifth and sixth decades. Three main forms of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) have been identified: cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), and non-neoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR). In this chapter, the term AIR will be used to encompass all three disorders. Patients typically present with a sudden onset of photopsia, rapid visual loss, and abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs). Different types of AIR present with similar clinical features and it requires extensive work up to rule out other differential diagnosis. Pt presents with poor visual prognosis that may be due to delayed diagnosis and delay in initiation of treatment. Different treatment modalities have been tried, including systemic immunosuppression with steroid and steroid-sparing agents, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, with variable results. Different types of antiretinal antibodies have been found in these patients with autoimmune retinopathy such as antibodies to recoverin, \a-enolase and transducin-\a, but seronegative disease is also common. A lot of research work has been done in this field to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms that is responsible for autoimmune retinopathy, but than also understanding about this rare disorder is limited. In this review we have tried to summarize the pathogenic mechanism, clinical features, investigation, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of autoimmune retinopathy.

Keywords: Autoimmunity, Retinopathy, Autoantibody

Full Text:


Auto immunity is a condition in which ones own tissues are prone to be affected by deleterious effects of the immunological system. Autoimmune retinopathy occurs when antigens trigger an immune response, which produces antibodies those cross reacts with a retinal protein. Autoimmune retinopathy represent an important cause of an otherwise unexplained acute or sub-acute vision loss in adults. These forms of retinal disease result from a presumed immunological process affecting the retina by auto antibodies directed against retinal antigens(1-3).

Autoimmune retinopathies can occur:

1. Rarely as primary autoimmune retinopathy.

2. More commonly as.

a. Cancer associated retinopathy (CAR)  

b.Retinopathies secondary to various autoimmune reactions.

Cancer associated retinopathy is the term that has been used for the retinal degeneration first described by Sawyer and associates [4] in 1976 as a distant effect of cancer. Paraneoplastic retinopathy, a term first used by Klingele and associates in 1984(5) has become the more general term used for any of a number of autoimmune retinopathy associated with a malignant tumor. Autoimmune retinopathy is the preferred term for an acquired, presumed immunologically mediated retinal degeneration with symptoms resembling paraneoplastic retinopathy(2).

The etiology and source of antigenic stimulation vary but are largely unknown. It is possible that the disease is triggered by molecular mimicry between retinal proteins and presumed viral or bacterial proteins or by the acquired alteration of host tissues or antigen so that the autoimmunity is induced against retinal proteins. Multiple retinal proteins have been found to be antigen including recoverin , enolase , arestin , transdusin TUPL I , neurofilament protein , heat shock protein ,70 PNR and as yet unidentified bipolar cell antigen causing melanoma associated retinopathy (MAR syndrome)(6) .

Autoimmune retinopathies are ophthalmic disorders in which autoantibody damage retina and its components causing progressive vision loss. Autoimmune retinopathy typically presents in the fifth and sixth decades with rapidly progressive, bilateral, painless visual deterioration(7).

Specific forms of autoimmune retinopathies that have been identified include cancer associated retinopathy (CAR)(4,8), melanoma associated retinopathy (MAR)[6] , anti-enolase retinopathy[2], anti-carbonic anhydrase retinopathy and  cancer associated cone dysfunction(9).

Some patients of secondary autoimmune retinopathy had associated systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, grave’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome(10).


Autoimmune retinopathy is an uncommon disorder, exact prevalence not known. It usually affect older adults, but patients as young as three years have been described with no sex predilection(11,12). Cancer associated retinopathy is most common form of autoimmune retinopathy. The malignancy most commonly associated with disorders is small-cell lung cancer, followed by gynecological breast cancers. Some cases have been reported with Hodgkin’s lymphoma, pancreatic and colon cancers (11,13). MAR appears to be increasing in frequency relative to CAR, perhaps because of a decrease in cases of lung cancer(11).


Autoimmune retinopathy typically presents in the fifth and sixth decades with rapidly progressive, bilateral, painless visual deterioration but an unremarkable fundus examination(7). Patients typically present with sudden onset of photopsia, rapid visual loss, and abnormal electroretinograms (ERG)(14). Bilateral vision loss as a result of both rod and cone dysfunction in CAR may occur over a period of months, visual symptoms may precede diagnosis of the systemic malignancy(15).

The triad of photosensitivity, ring scotoma, and a reduced caliber of the retinal arteriole along with undetectable signals in ERG are specific manifestations of CAR(16). MAR is characterized by shimmering, flickering or pulsating photopsias and usually occurs in the patients with cutaneous melanoma(16).

Besides glare sensitivity and flashing lights, a rapidly progressive, often asymmetric visual loss may occur.  Although paracentral and mid-peripheral scotomas can be found frequently, visual field defects are often quite heterogeneous (17). 

Individuals with cone involvement have

  • Photosensitivity (light sensitivity)
  • Prolonged glare after light exposure (hamarolopia)
  • Reduced visual acuity and loss of vision.

Patients with rod involvement have

  • Difficulty in seeing in dim lighting (Nyctalopia).
  • Prolonged dark adaptation.
  • Peripheral field vision loss.


  • Decreased central visual acuity
  • Visual field defects (central, paracentral or equatorial scotomas)
  • Alternate pupillary defect if asymmetric involvement.
  • Defective color vision.

Fundus Findings

Fundus can appear normal initially but with progression there is evidence of retinal degenerations (Retinal pigment epithelium RPE thickening and mottling, attenuation of the arterioles, optic nerve pallor. Cystoid macular edema (CME) has been reported in patients with non paraneoplastic retinopathy (npAIR) but is less common with CAR (18,19).

As reported by Keltner et al, fundus findings in 43 patients with MAR were as follows: 19 (44%) patients had normal fundus findings at presentation, 13 (30%) had vascular attenuation, and 12 (28%) had RPE changes. Vitreous cells were present in 13 (30%) patients, and 10 (23%) had optic disc pallor (11, 20)

Investigations and Diagnosis

All the patients who presented with unexplained loss of central vision, visual field defects, and/or photopsia are diagnosed with AIR based on clinical features, ERG findings, serum antiretinal antibody analysis and OCT testing for macula (10).

On OCT, patients show outer retinal abnormalities and/or decreased macular thickness. In Macular OCT  reduced central macular, foveal thickness, loss of the photoreceptor layer or disruption of the photoreceptor outer and inner segment junction was noted(10)


It should also be noted that antiretinal antibodies may be present in the normal population and their presence does not necessarily indicates retinopathy(10).For example, while anti recoverin autoantibody is not typically present in the normal population, the frequency of anti-α-enolase autoantibody is approximately 10% in healthy subjects; however this is not well defined for other anti-retinal auto antibodies(21,22).       

It was found that autoantibodies against retinal proteins from patients with retinopathy were cytotoxic to retinal cells, in contrast to those from healthy subjects, probably through recognition of additional unique regions on  their target retinal antigen(23).

Antibody Testing and their cytotoxic effects can be assessed with western blot, ELISA, immunocytochemistry, cytotoxicity assay for acute recovering antienolase antibodies assay[24].

The literature varies in diagnostic criteria for AIR and firm establishment of this diagnosis is challenging.

There have been different antibodies isolated against many specific retinal proteins in patient with autoimmune retinopathies. Patients with CAR possess autoantibodies, including recovering (23KDa), α-enolase(46KDa)(21,25). Other autoantibodies against retinal proteins have also been reported such as neurofilament proteins, heat-shock protein 70, TULPI protein, 40KDa insoluble protein(21,25-30).Auto antibodies binding to bipolar cells have been linked to the melanoma- associated retinopathy (MAR) syndrome(31-33)

Table 1


  • Typically, the responses in the ERG are markedly reduced, but normal ERGS are also described (17).Full field ERG are almost always abnormal, attenuated or absent photopic and scotopic response. IN CAR where mainly the cones are affected, full filed ERG could be normal but multifocal ERG will be abnormal.


  • Retrobulbar optic neuropathy. 
  • Toxic nutritional optic neuropathy or hereditary optic neuropathy.
  • In malignancy unexplained visual loss may be due to infiltration of malignant cell around optic nerves metastasis to orbit and optic neuropathy due to chemotheraputic agents
  • Acute Zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR).


Treatment of primary disease should be done in conjunction with a physician and an oncologist. Long term immune suppression is the main therapy. Immunosuppression has been used to treat AIR with mixed results. Sawyer et al treated 1 of the original 3 patients with CAR with prednisone but saw no improvement34. Keltner et al reported the first patient with CAR responsive to corticosteroid therapy35. Since then, there have been numerous case reports in the literature using short-course high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone or oral prednisone. Plasmapheresis, when used alone, led to no improvement36, when used with prednisone, vision improved in 1 patient37. Guy and Aptsiauri reported improvement in 2 of 3 patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and stabilization in the third38. Espandar et al recently reported stabilization of CAR with alemtuzumab therapy39.

Various treatment modalities have been tried in patients with CAR, including oral and intravenous steroids, plasmapheresis, IVIg, rituximab, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil[40-43]. Despite treatment with these systemic medications, it is not unusual to have a progressive decline in vision with this disease 44. Serial intravitreal injection of triamcinolone may be beneficial for maintenance of vision in patients with CAR 44.


Treatment may provide mild to moderate transient visual acuity improvement. But overall the visual prognosis remains poor. In cases of CAR, systemic cancer treatment usually do not lead to visual improvement However prognosis depends on their underlying malignancy (16).


The diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy remains extremly challenging. Patient has to undergo extensive neurological and neuro- ophthalmogical evaluation it also should be noted that antiretinal antibodies may be present in the normal population and their presence dose not necessarily indicate retinopathy.

Different mechanism of cell damage have been suggested for anti recoverin (45,46) and anti-enolase antibodies(47,48) predominantly resulting in apoptosis of retinal cells, therefore it appears that apoptosis may be a common pathway for retinal autoantibody induced retinal degeneration.   

The evidence supporting the effects of antibodies on retinal cells are the following findings:

a) Autoantibodies against recoverin specifically labeled retinal photoreceptor cells and were internalized by cells causing their apoptotic death[ 49].

b) In CAR patients, autoantibodies against α-enolase induced the apoptotic death of retinal cells, and in glaucoma patients, autoantibodies against γ-enolase labeled retinal ganglion cells and induced their death through apoptosis [50,51]

Independent of specificity, autoantibody-induced apoptosis is a pathway to retinal death in AR.

However the pathogenic mechanisms of retinopathies are complex and our understanding of AR is still incomplete. Further studies are necessary to identify anti-retinal autoantibodies, to test their pathogenic potentials through in vivo and in vitro methods, and to define clinical and electrophysiological indicators for seropositive patients.


Authors acknowledge the great help received from the scholars whose articles have been cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Authors are grateful to IJCRR editorial board members and IJCRR team of reviewers who have helped to bring quality to this manuscript.


  1. Ohguro H, Yokoi Y, Ohguro I, et al. Clinical and immunologic aspects of cancer-associated retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004; 137(6):1117–1119. [PubMed: 15183799]
  2. Weleber RG, Watzke RC, Shults WT, et al. Clinical and electrophysiologic characterization of paraneoplastic and autoimmune retinopathies associated with antienolase antibodies. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005; 139(5):780–794. [PubMed: 15860281]
  3. Whitcup SM, Vistica BP, Milam AH, Nussenblatt RB, Gery I. Recoverin-associated retinopathy: a clinically and immunologically distinctive disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998; 126(2):230–237. [PubMed: 9727517]
  4. Sawyer RA, Selhorst JB, Zimmerman LE, Hoyt WF. Blindnesscaused by photoreceptor degeneration as a remote effect of cancer. Am J Ophthalmol 1976;81:606–613
  5. Klingele TG, Burde RM, Rappazzo JA, Isserman MJ, BurgessD, Kantor O. Paraneoplastic retinopathy. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1984;4:239 –245.
  6. Berson EL, Lessell S. Paraneoplastic night blindness withmalignant melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;106:307–311.
  7. Braithwaite T, Vugler A, Tufail A. Autoimmune retinopathy. . Ophthalmologica. 2012;228(3):131-42.
  8. Thirkill CE, Roth AM, Keltner JL. Cancer-associated retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. Mar 1987;105(3):372-5. [Medline].
  9. Adamus G, Karren L. Autoimmunity against carbonic anhydrase II affects retinal cell functions in autoimmune retinopathy. J Autoimmun. Mar 2009;32(2):133-9. [Medline].
  10. Azin Abazari, Souha S. Allam, Grazyna Adamus, And Nicola G. Ghazi, Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Autoimmune Retinopathy, Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 April ; 153(4): 750–756.e1.
  11. Raj K Maturi, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy Sr, MD, Cancer Associated and Related Autoimmune Retinopathies,
  12. Ko AC, Hernández J, Brinton JP, Faidley EA, Mugge SA, Mets MB. Anti-?-enolase autoimmune retinopathy manifesting in early childhood. Arch Ophthalmol. Dec 2010;128(12):1590-5. [Medline].
  13. Adamus G. Autoantibody targets and their cancer relationship in the pathogenicity of paraneoplastic retinopathy. Autoimmun Rev. Mar 2009;8(5):410-4. [Medline].
  14. Heckenlively JR, Ferreyra HA. Autoimmune retinopathy: a review and summary, Semin Immunopathol. 2008 Apr;30(2):127-34.[article8]
  15. Khan N, Huang JJ, Foster CS. Cancer associated retinopathy (CAR): An autoimmune-mediated paraneoplastic Syndrome, Semin Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul-Sep;21(3):135-41.
  16. Ikawa M, Kuriyama M. Paraneoplastic retinopathy and optic neuropathy. Brain Nerve. 2010 Apr;62(4):371-6.
  17. Sobottka B, Schlote T, Besch D, Djelebova T, Wilhelm H, Zrenner al.   Carcinoma-associated retinopathy: a review with clinical examples. . Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2000 Jan;216(1):17-24.
  18. Ferreyra HA, Jayasundera T, Khan NW, He S, Lu Y, Heckenlively JR (2009) Management of autoimmune retinopathies with immunosuppression. Arch Ophthalmol 127:390–397.
  19. Nancy Huynh and Yevgeniy Shildkrot and Ann-Marie Lobo and Lucia Sobrin. Intravitreal triamcinolone for cancer-associated retinopathy refractory to systemic therapy. J Ophthal Inflamm Infect (2012) 2:169–171
  20. Keltner JL, Thirkill CE, Yip PT. Clinical and immunologic characteristics of melanoma-associated retinopathy syndrome: eleven new cases and a review of 51 previously published cases. J Neuroophthalmol. Sep 2001;21(3):173-87. [Medline].
  21. Adamus G, Aptsiauri N, Guy J, Heckenlively J, Flannery J, Hargrave PA. The occurrence of serum autoantibodies against enolase in cancer-associated retinopathy. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996; 78(2):120–129. [PubMed: 8625554].
  22. Gitlits VM, Toh BH, Sentry JW. Disease association, origin, and clinical relevance of autoantibodies to the glycolytic enzyme enolase. J Investig Med. 2001; 49(2):138–145.
  23. Adamus G, Amundson D, Seigel GM, Machnicki M. Anti-enolase alpha autoantibodies in cancerassociated retinopathy: epitope mapping and cytotoxicity on retinal cells. J Autoimmun. 1998; 11(6):671–677. [PubMed: 9878089].
  24. Grazyna Adamus*1,2, Gaoying Ren1 and Richard G Weleber2. Autoantibodies against retinal proteins in araneoplastic and autoimmune retinopathy. BMC Ophthalmology 2004, 4:5.
  25. Thirkill CE, FitzGerald P, Sergott RC, Roth AM, Tyler NK, Kaltner JL: Cancer-associated retinophaty (CAR syndrome) with antibodies reacting with retinal, optic-nerve, and cancer cells. New England Journal of Medicine 1989, 321:1589-1594.
  26. Murphy MA, Thirkill CE, Hart WM: Paraneoplastic retinopathy: a novel autoantibody reaction with small cell carcinoma. J Neuroophthalmol 1997, 17:77-83. .
  27. Ohguro H, Ogawa K, Nakagawa T: Recoverin and Hsc 70 are found as autoantigens in patients with cancer-associated retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999, 40:82-89. .
  28. Ohguro H, Ogawa K, Maeda T, Maeda A, Maruyama I: Cancer-associated retinopathy induced by both anti-recoverin and antihsc70 antibodies in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999, 40:3160-3167. .
  29. Yoon YH, Cho EH, Sohn J, Thirkill CE: An unusual type of cancerassociated retinopathy in a patient with ovarian cancer. Korean J Ophthalmol 1999, 13:43-48. .
  30. Peek R, Dijkstra BG, Meek B, Kuijpers RW: Autoantibodies to photoreceptor membrane proteins and outer plexiform layer in patients with cancer-associated retinopathy. Clin ExpImmunol 2002, 128:498-503. .
  31. Milam AH, Saari JC, Jacobson SG, Lubinski WP, Feun LG, Alexander KR: Autoantibodies against retinal bipolar cells in cutaneous melanoma-associated retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993, 34:91-100.
  32. Keltner JL, Thirkill CE: The 22-kDa antigen in optic nerve and retinal diseases. J Neuroophthalmol 1999, 19:71-83.
  33. Keltner JL, Thirkill CE, Yip PT: Clinical and immunologic characteristics of melanoma-associated retinopathy syndrome: eleven new cases and a review of 51 previously published cases. J Neuroophthalmol 2001, 21:173-187.
  34. Sawyer RASelhorst JBZimmerman LEHoyt WF Blindness caused by photoreceptor degeneration as a remote effect of cancer. Am J Ophthalmol 1976;81 (5) 606- 613]
  35. Keltner JLRoth AMChang RS Photoreceptor degeneration: possible autoimmune disorder. Arch Ophthalmol 1983;101 (4) 564- 569]
  36. Thirkill CEFitzGerald PSergott RCRoth AMTyler NKKeltner JL Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR syndrome) with antibodies reacting  with retinal, optic-nerve, and cancer cells. N Engl J Med 1989;321 (23) 1589- 1594]
  37. Murphy MAThirkill CEHart WM Jr Paraneoplastic retinopathy: a novel autoantibody reaction associated with small-cell lung carcinoma.   J 2Neuroophthalmol 1997;17 (2) 77- 83]
  38. Guy JAptsiauri N Treatment of paraneoplastic visual loss with intravenous immunoglobulin: report of 3 cases. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117 (4) 471- 477]
  39. Espandar L, O'Brien S, Thirkill C, Lubecki LA, Esmaeli B. Successful treatment of cancer-associated retinopathy with alemtuzumab. J Neurooncol. Jul 2007;83(3):295-302.
  40. Ferreyra HA, Jayasundera T, Khan NW, He S, Lu Y, Heckenlively JR (2009) Management of autoimmune retinopathies with immunosuppression. Arch Ophthalmol 127:390–397
  41. Guy J, Aptsiauri N (1999) Treatment of paraneoplastic visual loss with intravenous immunoglobulin. Arch Ophthalmol 127:612–614
  42. Shildkrot Y, Sobrin L, Gragoudas ES (2011) Cancer-associated retinopathy: update on pathogenesis and therapy. Sem Ophthalmol 26:321–328
  43. Mahdi N, Faia LJ, Goodwin J, Nussenblatt RB, Sen HN (2010) A case of autoimmune retinopathy associated with thyroid carcinoma. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 18:322–32
  44. Nancy Huynh and Yevgeniy Shildkrot and Ann-Marie Lobo and Lucia Sobrin-J Ophthal Inflamm Infect (2012) 2:169–171
  45. Adamus G, Machnicki M, Elerding H, Sugden B, Blocker YS, Fox DA. Antibodies to recoverin induce apoptosis of photoreceptor and bipolar cells in vivo. J Autoimmun. 1998; 11(5):523–533. [PubMed: 9802939].
  46. Maeda T, Maeda A, Maruyama I, et al. Mechanisms of photoreceptor cell death in cancerassociated retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001; 42(3):705–712. [PubMed: 11222531].
  47. Magrys A, Anekonda T, Ren G, Adamus G. The role of anti-alpha-enolase autoantibodies in pathogenicity of auto-immune-mediated retinopathy. J Clin Immunol. 2007; 27(2):181–192. [PubMed: 17235687].
  48. Ren G, Adamus G. Cellular targets of anti-alpha-enolase autoantibodies of patients with autoimmune retinopathy. J Autoimmun. 2004; 23(2):161–167. [PubMed: 15324934].
  49. Adamus G, Machnicki M, Seigel GM: Apoptotic retinal cell death induced by autoantibodies of cancer associated retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997, 38:283-291].
  50. Adamus G, Amundson D, Seigal GM, Machnicki M: Anti-enolase alpha autoantibodies in cancer-associated retinopathy: epitope mapping and cytotoxicity on retinal cells. J Autoimmun 1998, 11:671-677
  51. Maruyama I, Ohguro H, Ikeda Y: Retinal ganglion cells recognizedby serum autoantibody against gamma- enolase found in glaucoma patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000, 41:1657-1665.
  52. Dr Kathryn L. Pepple, PhD, Dr Prithvi Mruthyunjaya OphthalmologyTimesEurope Volume 9, Issue 5.
  53. Kimberly E. Stepien, MD,* Dennis P. Han, MD, Jonathan Schell, MD, Pooja Godara, MD, Jungtae Rha, PhD, and Joseph Carroll, PhD.  Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2009 December; 107: 28–33.



Research Incentive Schemes

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.

Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2021 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions