International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 18, September, 2013

Pages: 47-53

Date of Publication: 25-Sep-2013

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Author: Syed Sana Mehraj, G.A. Bhat, Henah Mehraj Balkhi

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Cement is currently the most widely used construction material throughout the world. Its production is being recognized to play a hazardous role in the imbalances of the environment and producing air pollutants in the form of various oxides, particulate matter as well as heavy metals which pose a serious threat to living world including humans, plants, animals, livestock etc. Keeping in view the hazards of cement dust it is recommendable that the cement industry management, their workers and health officials should work together to adopt scientific and technical preventive measures. The stack height must be appropriate and air pollution control devices should be installed and regularly checked so that people residing around these industries may not loss their life to fatal diseases.

Keywords: Cement; hazardous; workers; industries; diseases.

Full Text:


Studies on the impact of cement  industries dates back to decades but the greatest bulk of research has been conducted  within the past few years, not more than twenty years, when health specialists and environmentalists understood its adverse impacts on health and environment. These industries affect air quality, soil, flora and fauna of the region. Several studies have shown that the levels of SPM, NOx and SOx are resulting in higher incidences of respiratory diseases like tuberculosis, cardio-vascular diseases and asthma in the areas (Hart, R.H, 1970; Vestbo et al. 1990; Dockery et al. 1993; Schwartz, J., 2002). As a whole study of impact of cement dust pollution on human health is a relatively interesting field of study that has advanced rapidly during the past few years. There is extensive, diffused and scattered information on the subject in the literature.  Due to essential changes caused by the atmospheric pollution are not only restricted to the one component, but also extend to the detrimental effects on human health, vegetation, biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics and human welfare.

The physical properties including particle size and density, shape and penetrability, surface area of cement dust are more important than chemical properties influencing the respiratory tract’s response to the inhaled agent (Morgan, 1984; Sheppard, 1990). People mostly in age group of 65 and older in developed countries and in developing countries 15-44 age group are more prone (Cropper et al., 1860) and above this more effects are seen in children, (Hofmiester et al., 1986) as main route of entry of cement dust particles in the body  is  respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract, (Green et al., 1970) so firstly organs associated with these gets affected (Hart, R.H., 1970) with more hospital visits (Vestbo, et al., 1990). The cancer risk due to cement exhibition showed a positive correlation to the duration of exposition (Maier et al., 1991; Maier et al., 1992) with increased risk of laryngeal cancer and predominantly related to supra glottis cancer, chest pain, cough, and eye problems, (Yhdego, 1992; Yang et al., 1993; Yang et al., 1996).

Cement particles are respirable in size hence Portland cement is important as a potential cause of occupational lung disease. The population living around the cement plant exhibited increased urinary concentration of thallium level in the residents and also exhibited increased hair thallium levels with congenital abnormalities were cleft lip and palate, facial hemangioma, icterus neonatorum, swelling on the back of hands and feet, inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, lumbar meningomyelocele and ventricular septal defect (Brockhaus et al., 1981; Dolgner et al., 1983) with an increased risk of liver abnormalities, pulmonary disorders, and carcinogenesis were found. Decreased antioxidant capacity and increased plasma lipid peroxidation have also been posed as possible causal mechanisms of disease with cardiovascular, cerebro-vascular mortality (Aydin et al., 2010; Grau, 2009; Peters et al., 2009)   and skin irritation, the mucous membrane of the eyes and the respiratory system  (Zeleke et al., 2010; Zyede et al., 2010). 

Besides local residents surrounding cement industries impacts  on cement mill workers appeared to be less prominent initially and became more prominent at later stages, causing varied complications with diffused swelling and proliferation of sinusoidal (hepatic) lining cells, sarcoid type granulomas and perisinusoidal, nephron problems, oral mucosal inflammation,    decreased oral health condition, more parodontal disease, pulmonary lesions, diminished lymphatic tissue, decreased DNA, RNA and total protein levels and  also causes stomach ache due to presence of chromium in its hexa-valent form and causes laryngeal cancer (Kalacic et al., 1973;  Pimental and Menezes, 1978; Schaller 1980; Petersen and Henmar, 1988; Struzak and Bozyk, 1989; Bozyk and Owczarek, 1990; Amandus, 1986;  Oleru, 1984; Olsen and Sabroe, 1984;  Zhang, 1990; Tuominen, 1991; Vestbo et al., 1991; Dvorianinovich et al., 1993; Jakobsson et al.,  1993;Abou-Talebet al., 1995; Abrons et al., 1995; Shortet al., 1996; Yang et al., 1996). Workers which spend more time in cement factories show prominent ill impacts (Alakija et al., 1990; Abuhaise et al., 1997) with high prevalence of asthma in the group with the highest dust exposure. Significant increase in total protein and calcium levels with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms among cement workers suggested that workers in the construction industry carry an increased risk for head and neck cancer (Fatima et al., 1997; Mengesha et al., 1998; Alvear-Galindo et al., 1999; Maier et al., 1999). Workers at a Portland cement plant had experienced acute eye irritations and higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and a reduction of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio among the cement workers with increased daily mortality (Sanderson et al., 1999; Noor et al., 2000; Samet et al., 2000). 

Besides respiratory symptoms, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, cardio-pulmonary and dermatitis among the workers it was seen decrease in the mean erythrocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte count. In addition a slight decrease in hemoglobin level and chromosomal aberrations and cancer was also found with pulmonary radiographic abnormalities such as interstitial lung disease, pleural thickening and chronic bronchitis (Mishra, 1991; Dockery et al., 1993; Piotrowski, 1993; Krewski et al., 2000; Al?Neaimi et al., 2001; Fatima et al., 2001; Laraqui et al., 2001; Meo et al., 2002; Calistus Jude et al., 2002; Laraqui Hossini et al., 2002; Schwartz. J., 2002; Meo, 2003; Dietz et al., 2004;  Mwaiselage et al., 2004; Schuhmacher et al., 2004; Smailyte et al., 2004; Mwaiselage et al., 2006;  Pope and Dockey, 2006).   Fugitive dust emissions from cement plants affect health and property of house owners living adjacent to the plant and found that the people of this area are badly affected by respiratory problems, gastrointestinal diseases etc with adverse impact for vegetation, human and animal health and ecosystems with greater risks in winter months (Anglauf et al., 1986; Quiros, 2005; Sabah .A. Abdul Ahab, 2006; Adak et al., 2007; Baby et al., 2008). 


The aerodynamic diameter of cement particles makes it a potential health hazard as these are respirable in size and reaches in internal organs particularly lungs leading to occupational lung diseases. This size distribution would make the trachea-bronchial respiratory zone, the primary target of cement deposition. The main route of entry of cement dust particles in the body is the respiratory tract and/ or the gastrointestinal tract by inhalation or swallowing respectively (Green, 1970). Both routes, especially the respiratory tract are exposed numerous to potentially harmful substances in the cement mill environment. Besides cement dust various gaseous pollutants are also contributed by cement factories which cause pollution and ultimately affect human health. The various organ systems which get affected because of cement factories include:

Respiratory system: In respiratory system these causes lungs cough and phlegm production, chest tightness, impairment of lung function, obstructive and restrictive lung diseases, Pleural thickening, fibrosis, emphysema, lung nodulation, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of lung

Gastro intestinal system: Oral cavity, mechanical trauma, mucosal inflammation, loss of tooth surface, periodontal diseases, dental caries, dental abrasion, liver diffuse, swelling and proliferation of sinusoidal (hepatic) lining cells, sarcoid type granulomas, perisinusoidal and portal fibrosis and hepatic lesions is caused in the gastro intestinal system.

Stomach: In stomach it causes stomach ache and cancer.

Central nervous system (brain): Usually causes headache and fatigue.

Lymphatic system: Spleen diminished lymphatic tissue and splenic lesions.

Other affects includes affect in eyes, skin and bones. Irritation in eyes, running eyes and conjunctivitis, skin irritation, itching, skin boil and burn, osteonecrosis, lesion of humerus, thinning of the cortex and reduction of epiphyseal cartilage.

Cement dust is a potential pollutant in the vicinities of cement producing factories creating serious pollution related diseases.


From the study it can be concluded that cement dust consists of many toxic constituents. The residents as well as workers who are employed in the cement industries are exposed to cement dust for long periods, thus from the literature it can be concluded that there is significant increase in the various diseases particularly respiratory problems both in workers as well as in the residents and need is to take proper preventive measures so that development may not be at the cost of human lives. 


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A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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