International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 18, September, 2013

Pages: 41-46

Date of Publication: 25-Sep-2013


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

A REVIEW ON THE DETECTION OF HEAVY METALS IN WATER BODIES, FISH ORGANS, SEDIMENT RIVER BEDS

Author: Rajeev Kumar1, A. K. Gupta, Amit Chattree, R. M. Tripathi

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The consumption of highly contaminated water and eatables may prove lethal to the human being and may bring genetic disorders. Toxic heavy metals are continuously released to the aquatic bodies in Allahabad as a rapid industrialization. Metals are the problem of magnitude and of ecological significance due to their high toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms. Many toxicologists have worked on the analysis and detection of heavy metals in the water bodies, soil, sediments, plankton, fish organs, etc. The main aim of this paper is to provide an in-depth review for the heavy metal concentration in water, fish, sediments, eatables, such as vegetables grown on River beds, etc and to give recommendations to prevent the health hazards against consumption.

Keywords: Heavy Metal, Sediments, Industrialization, Hazards.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Due to evolution of technology, the rise of industries at or along the bank of water bodies is one of the main causes of pollution which may cause the health hazards for the population consuming the contaminated water and other related eatables. Many publications are available all around the world consisting the heavy metal detection and have been discussed in the paper. Due to the number of references collected from the variety of sources, some lacks or omissions are possible. Authors have tried to cover maximum number of information, some of them are briefly discussed below:-

Widianarko et al (2000) studied the relationship among sediment, water and fish for their metal concentrations in urban streams of Semarang, Indonesia and found a significant declining trend of lead concentrations with increasing organism size, whereas for two other metals, Zn and Cu, the concentrations did not depend on the body weight. However, metal concentration in the sediment was the most important factor governing the toxicity of metal in fish body. The fish living in highly polluted sites have also developed a physiological adaption by accumulating a large quantity of metals.

Tole et al (2003) carried out a study to establish the concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Se in Lake Victoria waters, sediments and fish in order to assess the current threats to human health from heavy metal pollution, and also compare the current status with previous studies conducted in the Lake, so that current trends in heavy metal pollution in the Lake waters, sediments, and fish can serve as a pointer to future status.

Nnaji et al (2007) used flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The Oreochromis Niloticus and Synodontis Schall were caught with cast net from twenty sampling points. The fish samples were dissected to separate the fish head/viscera from other parts after weighing. The samples were digested with concentrated acid solution and the digests were analysed. Mean metal contents in the fish head/viscera of O. Niloticus in the upstream and downstream area were calculated. After comparison of these values with FAO limits in fish tissue the study suggested that it is unsafe to consume the fish head/viscera of both fish species from River Galma.

Abdallah (2008) studied the concentrations of  Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn in muscles of some commercially fish species collected from two coastal areas of the Egyptian coast of the Mediterranean Sea west of Alexandria (El-Mex Bay and Eastern Harbour). For all trace element examined, in all fishes zinc was the highest followed by Cr, Cu, Pb and Cd. The levels of Cr surpassed the maximum permissible concentration in most fish tissues, followed by Pb and Cd in some species. Cu and Zn concentrations were found to be below the maximum permissible levels proposed by Food and Agriculture Organization. 

In Saudi Arabia V, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Pb and Hg levels in most common available fish species in Saudi markets were determined by Al-Bader (2008). Results showed that the concentrations of metals were below the maximum allowed limit by the Saudi and international legislations for fish human consumption permissible limit.

Mourtaja (2008) determined concentrations of Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb and Cu in three marine fishes namely, Grey mullet, Barracuda and Sigan species. The average concentrations of these heavy metals in muscles of Grey mullet were for Zn: 4.675; Cr: 0.120; Cd: 0.096; Pb: 2.606 and Cu: 0.3743 (g/g dry wt.). In Barracuda the average concentrations were 6.030, 0.151, 0,092, 2.618 and 0.247( g/g dry wt.), respectively. In Sigan fish the averages were 6.258, 0.141, 0.123, 2.389 and 0.570 (g/g dry wt.), respectively. 

Obasohan and Eguavoen (2008) investigated accumulation levels of Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb in a freshwater fish (Erpetoichthys Calabaricus) from Ogba River, Nigeria, during dry and rainy seasons. Findings showed that the accumulation levels in fish exceeded the levels of the metals in water and indicated bioaccumulation in fish and no significant differences of metal levels between the dry and rainy season. Findings also showed that both dry and rainy season mean levels of Cu, Mn and Ni in fish exceeded WHO recommended limits in food, suggested that the fishes of the River are not suitable for human consumption. They recommended that a close monitoring of metal pollution of Ogba River is strongly advocated, in view of the possible risks to health of consumers of fish from the River.

Prasath et al (2008) used Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for the detection of accumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd and Ni) in water, sediments and fish (Mugil Cephalus) at Poompuhar coast (southeast coast of India) before and after Tsunami.  Accumulation of heavy metals was observed in the order of Sediments > Fish > Water.  In water, the order was found to be Mn > Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd > Co > Pb; Mn recorded a maximum of 506.9µ.L-1 and Pb recorded a minimum of 0.006 µ.L-1 In sediments, the order was Mn > Fe > Cu > Zn > Pb ≈ Co ≈ Cd ≈ Ni; Mn recorded a maximum of 851.1µg.g-1 and a minimum of below detectable levels were found in Pb, Co, Cd and Ni.  In fish, the order was found to be Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co ≈ Pb ≈ Cd; Fe recorded a maximum of 529.13 µg.g-1 and a minimum of below detectable levels were found in Pb and Cd.

Saeed and Shaker (2008) presented a report about concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd and Pb in O. Niloticus (Tilapia) fish tissues, water and sediments in northern Delta Lakes. They found that the edible part of O. Niloticus from Lake Edku and Manzala contained the highest levels of Cd while fish from Manzala Lake contained the highest level of Pb. They reported that Nile tilapia caught from these two Lakes may pose health hazards for consumers.

Vinodhini et al. (2008) determined the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in various organs of the fresh water fish exposed to heavy metal contaminated water system using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The experimental fish was exposed to Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb at sub lethal concentrations for periods of 32 days. The results were given as µg/g dry wt. The accumulation of heavy metal gradually increases in liver during the heavy metal exposure period. All the results were statistically significant at p < 0.001. The order of heavy metal accumulation in the gills and liver was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cr and Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr. Similarly, in case of kidney and flesh tissues, the order was Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni and Pb > Cr > Cd > Ni. In all heavy metals, the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium proportion was significantly increased in the tissues of Cyprinus carpio (Common carp).

Rauf et al  (2009) carried out a study to determine heavy metal (cadmium and chromium) concentrations in gills, kidneys, liver, skin, muscles and scales of three fish species (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala). The sample collection was carried out from three places viz. Lahore Siphon (Up-stream), Shahdera Bridge and Baloki Headworks (Down stream) in the River Ravi, Pakistan. The results showed that Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly depending upon the type of fish tissues and locations. The concentrations of Cd and Cr differed significantly (p<0.001) among five fish organs and three sites and non-significantly between the three fish species. Fish liver appeared to have significantly higher tendency for the accumulation of cadmium and chromium (4.26 ± 1.57 and 6.23 ± 1.14 µgg-1), while gills had minimum concentrations (1.10 ± 0.53 and 1.46 ± 0.52 µgg-1) of these metals. Generally, Catla Catla showed higher levels of metal concentrations than Labeo Rohita and Cirrhina Mrigala. Metal contamination was highest at Baloki Headworks, probably due to inclusion of more effluents from industrial and sewage water. 

Lakshmanan et al (2009) carried out a study on the detection of accumulated heavy metals in the fishes of Parangipettai coastal waters. The fishes are important from the commercial point of view and analyzed for the Zn, Pb, Cr, Co and Cd concentrations in the muscles. The statistical results suggested that there is no significant species-specific difference. The highest concentration of Cr and Zn whereas lowest concentration of Pb

In India, Raja et al (2009), determined the concentrations of Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn and Al in four commercially available marine edible fish species from Parangipettai coast. They reported that metal levels in edible parts of the investigated fish was in the permissible safety levels for human uses according to FAO, 1983; EC, 2001; Food and Drug  Administration, 2001 standards.

In Nigeria, Alinnor and Obiji  (2010) performed a study to examine trace metal (Pb, Fe, Cd, Mn, Hg, Cu and Zn composition in fish samples from Nworie River and in frozen fish samples purchased from Ekeonunwa. Nworie River contaminated the biota in the aquatic system with these elements which its toxicants will be transferred to man by consumption of fish obtained from the River. Also they found that frozen fish samples purchased from Ekeonunwa market were contaminated with heavy metals. 

Mandour et al (2011) used atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the analysis of Fifty-four drinking groundwater samples collected in April 2010 from some districts of the Dakahlyia governorate, Egypt. The water samples were analyzed for Fe.Mn,Pb,Ni,Cr,Zn,Cu,Co and Cd concentrations. Two were found suitable for drinking; from the water sample from Aga district showed slightly higher levels of Cd and Ni (Ikhtab and Feshbena) than other areas; the concentrations were higher than the permissible limits of Egyptian Ministry of Health and WHO.

Sabra et al (2011) carried out the sequential extraction study on the sample of sediment of Deule canal. The sediments were subjected to a physico-chemical characterization comprising particle size classification and heavy metals sequential extraction studies.  Study reported the total metallic concentrations of several metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb or Cu exceeded from the limit permitted by French standards. Particles that are less than 53 µm in size contains as an average, 92% of the total weight of each metal. These particles represent about 85% of the suspended matter dry weight. This sequential extraction study revels that most of the studied metals are strongly linked to the sediments because of their association with the sulphides and with the organic matter.

Kaur et al (2012) used ICP-MS for the monitoring of seasonal variation (Year 2011) of the heavy metals concentration of water of Yamuna River flowing through Delhi. The analysis was carried out for the heavy metals Pb, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr and Ni. For this purpose, sampling was done from ten selected study sites (most likely to be affected by industrial & anthropogenic activities) during two seasons i.e. summer (May) and winter (January). Result shows broad variation in the heavy metal levels varying from high concentration during summer and low concentrations during winter season. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Co was detected under the permissible limits of ICMR, CPCB, WHO and EPA. Eminent concentrations of Fe, Ni & Mn were reported at Boat club, Yamuna Bazaar, Nigambodh Ghat, Delhi old Bridge, ITO, Nizamuddin Bridge and Mayur Vihar. Also, Pb, Cd, Cu and Co have shown significant variation (p<0.05) in their concentration between summer and winter seasons, with less accumulation during winter and high during summers. Authors discussed that high heavy metal concentration during summer may be attributed to increased water temperature during summer that may result in increased metal toxicity.

Shabanda et al (2012) used atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the detection of Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn and Al in water, sediments, gills and flesh of both Synodntissorex and Bagrus filamentosus from River Jega in Kebbi State, Nigeria. The pattern of distribution of the heavy metals showed a preponderance of Cr and Mn over other metals in the organs of the two fish species as well as in the water and sediment samples. Al was not detected in the organs of fish species, water and sediment. The concentration of Mn was found highest in the sediment and lowest in water. The unexpectedly high concentration value obtained for Cr and Mn calls for medical alertness since it exceeded the WHO recommended acceptable limits for consumption. Cd and Pb distribution in all the samples was lower than the WHO and USEPA recommended acceptable limits for consumption.

DISCUSSION

The toxicologist has continually detected the heavy metal concentration in various water bodies, plants, vegetables, etc. Human health is directly affected by the consumption of polluted water, fish, fruits, vegetables, and plants etc which are the main sources of food for human. Earlier studies have shown exceeded heavy metal limit which shows that fish and drinking water is not suitable for consumption whereas somewhere it is below the permissible limit.

CONCLUSION

There is a need to maintain control on disposal of industrial waste in water bodies and to bio-monitor the trace elements in the water and other eatables.  The practice of trace element detection should be continued to avoid possible consumption of contaminated eatables. It is recommended that awareness should be spread among the people regarding the hazards on consumption of polluted water and related eatables. It is also essential that farmers should be educated to reduce such contamination and should be encouraged to use the controlled amount of pesticides, to avoid the leaching of waste water and cultivating in a field far away from industrial area as well as areas prone to contamination.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The Corresponding author is highly oblige to University Grant Commission for providing fellowship for research and development work in Forensic Science.

References:

  1. Widianarko B, VanGestel C A M, Verweij R A and Van Straalen N M (2000).Associations between trace metals in sediment, Water and Aguppy, Poecilia Reticulate (Peters), from urban streams of Semarang, Indonesia. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 46:101-107.
  2. Mwakio P. Tole and Jenipher Muhalulukhu Shitsama (2003).  “Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Water, Fish, and Sediments of the Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya”.
  3. Nnaji J C, Uzairu A, Harrison G. F. S. and Balarabe M. L (2007). “Evaluation of Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead and Zinc Concentrations in the Fish Head/Viscera of Oreochromis Niloticus and Synodontis Schall of River Galma, Zaria, Nigeria”.
  4. Abdallah A. M. (2008). Trace element levels in some commercially valuable fish species from coastal waters of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt,. Journal of Marine Systems. 73(1-2): p. 114-122.
  5. Al bader, N. (2008). Heavy metal levels in most common available fish species in Saudi market. Journal of food technology. 6(4): p. 173- 177.
  6. Mourtaja, M. (2008).Evaluation of microble and heavy metals contaminants on fresh fish in Gaza Strip shore, in Food Science and Technology, Al- Azhar: Gaza. p. 100.
  7. E. E.Obasohan and I.O.Eguavoen (2008). Seasonal variations of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in a freshwater fish (Erpetoichthys Calabaricus) from Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of General Agriculture. 4(3): p. 153156.
  8. P. Martin Deva Prasath and T. Hidayathulla Khan (2008). “Impact of Tsunami on the Heavy Metal Accumulation in Water, Sediments and Fish at Poompuhar Coast, Southeast Coast of India”.
  9. M.S. Saeed and M.I. Shaker (2000). Assessment of heavy metals pollution in water and sediment and their effect on Oreochromis Niloticus in the northern Delta lakes , Egypt  in 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Egypt. p. 475- 490. 
  10. R. Vinodhini and M Narayanan (2008). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus Carpio (Common carp).
  11. Rauf, Javed M and Ubaidullah M (2009). Heavy metal levels in three major carps (Catla Catla, Labeo Rohita And Cirrhina Mrigala) From The River Ravi, Pakistan.
  12. Lakshmanan R, Kesavan K, Vijayanand P, Rajaram V and Rajagopal S (2009). “Heavy Metals Accumulation in Five Commercially Important Fishes of Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India”.
  13. Raja P, Veerasingam S, Suresh G, Marichamy G and Venkatachalapathy R (2009). Heavy metals concentration in four commercially valuable marine edible fish species from Parangipettai Coast, South East Coast of India. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 1(1): p. 10-14.
  14.  Alinnor, J. and Obiji, I.( 2010). Assessment of Trace Metal Composition in Fish Samples from Nworie River. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 9(1): p. 81-85.
  15. RA Mandour, YA Azab (2011). “Toxic Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Drinking Groundwater in Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt in the Year”.
  16. Nada Sabra, Henri-Charles Dubourguier and Tayssir Hamieh (2011). “Sequential Extraction and Particle Size Analysis of Heavy Metals in Sediments Dredged from the Deûle Canal, France.
  17. Simerjit Kaur (2012). “Assessment of Heavy Metals in Summer & Winter Seasons in River Yamuna Segment Flowing through Delhi, India”.
  18.  I. S. Shabanda, A. U. Itodo (2012). “Toxins in Gills and Flesh of Synodontissorex  and Bagrus filamentosus”.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions