International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 24, December, 2013

Pages: 52-56

Date of Publication: 31-Dec-2013


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MICROCHIP INSERTION IN HUMAN BEINGS - A NEW IDENTIFICATION TOOL

Author: Ajay Kumar S. , Manjula Bai K. H., D.R.Mahadeshwara Prasad, Nagesh C. Kuppast, Chandan V., Sidramappa Gouda

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:During mass disasters, victim identification is one of the great challenges for the investigating teams especially in case of most markedly putrefied and partially skeletonised bodies. In these cases an adequate body tagging method is essential. Conventional body bag tagging in terms of writing on body bags and placing of tags inside body bags was not satisfactory and consequences of cold storage, embalming and body numbers inside storage facilities may raise problems. The placement of sub dermal implant of Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) microchips in human beings which contains a unique ID number that can be linked to information contained in an external database, such as personal identification, medical history, medications, allergies, and contact information. This is also useful to find lost children or confused Alzheimer's patients, or to determine if job applicants are illegal immigrants or criminals as well as victims in major accidents or mass disasters.

Keywords: Micro-chip, Sub dermal implant, Identification, Mass disaster.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

RFID technology was introduced in the beginnings of WWII to identify the Allied airplanes. Since then, RFID technology was used for multiple purposes, mainly to track nuclear materials as well animals etc. A RFID chip is a microchip that transmits a static identifier or serial number for a short distance1. More improvised microchip devices are available for identifying stray animals and these implants are about the size of a grain of rice, have been a great boon for the owners with lost or stolen pets. Implantation of more than six million has been reported. Recovering a lost animal is greatly increased and a wandering can quickly be scanned. The animal's owner can be easily identified if it has a microchip2. Many researches have been done to help the people medically with this technology. This technology is being used to implant people with microchips1.

As early as in 1967 Alan Westin discussed the possibility of "permanent impalements of 'tagging' devices on or in the body" and he also stated that if the technology were extended to human beings, a lot of identification related applications, such as the capability to find confused Alzheimer's patients or lost children, or criminals or to determine if job applicants are illegal immigrants could have been envisaged 2.

 

But some issues may arise with implanting microchips in people and which include the ability to track a person's exact location, legal and privacy concerns, their purchasing habits, as well as hacking their information about personal and financial matters.  

 

Historical Aspects

In 1998 the first reported experiment with an RFID implant was carried out by the British scientist Kevin Warwick. As a test, his implant was used to open doors, switch on lights, and cause verbal output within a building. After this, several additional hobbyists have placed RFID microchip implants into their different parts of the body or had them placed there by others. Author of the book "RFID Toys" Amal Graafstra asked doctors to place implants in his hands. A scalpel was used by a cosmetic surgeon to place a microchip in his left hand, and using a veterinary Avid injector kit doctor injected a chip into his right hand. Graafstra used the implants to open his home and car doors and to log on to his computer4. Mikey Sklar had a chip implanted into his left hand and filmed the procedure along with that he did number of personal interviews about his experience of being microchipped5.

Procedure and details of biochip implant6

The newly available biochip implant is basically a small (micro) computer chip (Fig 1), inserted under the skin, for multiple purposes. The biochip implant system consists of two components; a transponder and a reader or scanner. The transponder is the actual biochip implant. The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader. The reading range or activation range, between reader and biochip is small, normally between 2 and 12 inches. The two Components are (Fig 2)

1) The transponder: The transponder is the actual biochip implant. Transponder is of two types, a passive transponder, meaning it contains no battery or energy of its own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive biochip contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life, up to 99 years, and no maintenance. Being passive, it's inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a low-power electrical charge. The reader "reads" or "scans" the implanted biochip and receives back data (in this case an identification number) from the biochip. The communication between biochip and reader is via low-frequency radio waves.

The biochip-transponder consists of four parts; computer microchip, antenna coil, capacitor and the glass capsule. A) Computer Microchip: The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. AVID (American Veterinary Identification Devices), claims their chips, using a nnn-nnn-nnn format, has the capability of over 70 trillion unique numbers. The unique ID number is "etched" or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly. Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter. The microchip also contains the electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the ID number to the "reader". B) Antenna Coil: This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna "receives and sends" signals from the reader or scanner. C) Tuning Capacitor: The capacitor stores the small electrical charge (less than 1/1000 of a watt) sent by the reader or scanner, which activates the transponder. This "activation" allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. D) Glass Capsule: The glass capsule "houses" the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, about the size of an uncooked grain of rice. The capsule is made of biocompatible

material such as soda lime glass. After assembly, the capsule is hermetically (air-tight) sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside. Because the glass is very smooth and susceptible to movement, a material such as a polypropylene polymer sheath is attached to one end of the capsule. This sheath provides a compatible surface which the bodily tissue fibres bond or interconnect, resulting in a permanent placement of the biochip.

The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple, comparable to common vaccines. Anaesthesia is not required nor recommended. In dogs and cats, the biochip is usually injected behind the neck between the shoulder blades. According to AVID once implanted, the identity tag is virtually impossible to retrieve. The number can never be altered.

2) The reader: The reader consists of an "exciter" coil which creates an electromagnetic field that, via radio signals, provides the necessary energy (less than 1/1000 of a watt) to "excite" or "activate" the implanted biochip. The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code or ID number sent back from the "activated" implanted biochip. This all takes place very fast, in milliseconds. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display. The reader can include a RS-232 port to attach a computer.

How it works6: The reader generates a low-power, electromagnetic field, in this case via radio signals, which "activates" the implanted biochip. This "activation" enables the biochip to send the ID code back to the reader via radio signals. The reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the reader's LCD display. The reader must normally be between 2 and 12 inches near the biochip to communicate. The reader and biochip can communicate through most materials, except metal.

Uses7

1. A newer kind of microchip called a VeriChip, which is also about the size of a grain of rice and which contains an identification number or other data, such as medical information, a person's address and phone number.

2. In animals the chip is used extensively, but VeriChip can be used in humans who have a pacemaker, artificial heart valves, or orthopaedic knee devices. If a patient would need help, a hospital could use a scanner to obtain information from the VeriChip.

3. A potential market for the chips would be a potential kidnap victim who could use these chips in combination with global positioning devices. Society in general could use them in place of ATM or credit cards.

4. In coming years, this new chip will be used in children, the elderly, prisoners, and by employers at facilities such as nuclear plants. Already airports are beginning to use similar micro-devices to improve security by tagging bags with more detailed instructions about how they are to be handled and screened. Automakers are installing the chips in keys to deter auto theft and Libraries are beginning to use the technology to track books.

The insertion of radio frequency identification (RFID) tag8 into dentures could be used as an aid to identify decomposed bodies, by storing personal identification data in a small transponder that can be radio-transmitted to a reader connected to a computer.

 

Limitations1

There are so many potential problems and benefits with human micro chipping. One problem is invading of a person’s privacy. This could happen because of tracking of person’s movements, both physically and financially. Personal data about an individual could be sold or hacked into. A third potential problem could be storage of information and who can access that information. Above all these there are potential health problems as well.

 

Health Risks9

Health risks are involved as with any type of surgery. The FDA has reported on the specific risks of the VeriChip microchip, some of which are: adverse tissue reaction, migration of implanted transponder, electro­magnetic interference, electrical hazards, and magnetic resonance imaging incompatibility. The civil libertarians warn that mass human implantation has not received enough debate and may put us on a slippery slope towards a system of human numbering. Also they contend that human micro­chip implantation will first be sold to the pop­ulace as being beneficial, fun, and ultra-convenient, convincing many that microchip implantations are benign. There is some worry that mass implantation will lead to large scale abuse.

 

CONCLUSION

Identification of person is very important in present world, because of globalization. There are many modes of identification such as fingerprints, dental casts, biometrics, DNA fingerprints and others.  These methods are simple and economical, but large data has to be stored. So if the data is lost, identification of all the cases will be lost. In biochip, the data is stored in chip itself which is implanted in the person and there is no need to store the data separately. Easily the data can be read by a reader and it may become a new identification tool in future.

References:

  1. Smith C. Human Microchip Implantation. J .Technol. Manag. Innov. 2008; 3(3): 151-160.
  2. Ramesh EM. Time Enough? Consequences of Human Microchip Implantation. Pierce Law Review, vol. 8, 1997. Available: http://www.fplc.edu/risk/vol8/fall/ramesh.htm.
  3. "Is human chip implant wave of the future?". CNN. January 13, 1999. http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9901/14/chipman.idg/. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  4.  Tutu S. Tick! Tock! the Clock Is Ticking. United States of America and United Kingdom: Holy Fire Publishing; 2011.p.39.
  5. http://www.jonnygoldstein.com/2005/12/29/mikey-sklar-gets-an-rfid-tag-implanted-in-his-hand/ Johnny Goldstein Interviews Mikey Sklar.
  6. Rao TVN, Sukruthi GS, Raj G. Biochip Technology –A Gigantic Innovation. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2012; 2(3): 129-135.
  7. Sickler M. The microchip under the skin. Michael Journal 2012; jan-Feb: 13.
  8. Nuzzolese E, Marcario V, Di Vella G. Incorporation of Radio frequency identification tag in dentures to facilitate recognition and forensic human identification. Open Dent J 2010; 4: 33-6.   
  9. Gad A. Human Microchip Implantation. Legislative Briefs from the Legislative Reference Bureau. Legislative Brief 06−13. June 2006, 1-2. Available from http://legis.wisconsin.gov/lrb/pubs/lb/06lb13.pdf.

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


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