IJCRR - vol 06 issue 03, February, 2014
RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE : A CASE CONTROL STUDY
Author: Vijaya Sorganvi, M. S. Kulkarni, Deepak Kadeli, Suhasini Atharga
Background: Stroke is global health problem and is a leading cause of disability. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In rapid increase in burden of stroke in coming years and limited availability of stroke care in India, it would be better to study stroke prevention strategies. The current hospital based case-control study was undertaken with aim, to identify the risk factors for stroke. Material and Method: Study was carried out in BLDEU?s Shri B M Patil Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre. A prospective case-control, age and sex matched study was designed to find the risk factors. Cases: The study consisted of 100 hospitalized computed demography (CT) scan proved cases of stroke. Controls: The controls were selected from patients who attended the study hospital for conditions other than stroke (confirmed with CT scan). For each case of stroke, one control was selected. The controls were matched to cases in respect to age (± 5 years), sex. One hundred controls were selected in the same manner. Results: Bivariate analysis included odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals were indentified, hypertension (0R=3.807), diabetes (0R=3.473), hypercholesteremia (OR=3.768), obesity (0R=2.471), smoking (0R=2.42), family history of stroke (OR=2.359), and transient ischemic attack (OR=2.006) as a risk factors for stroke. Conclusion: This is a study that quantifies the contribution of different factors to the overall risk of stroke. Finding that, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes are the biggest risk factors for all type of strokes is important because like many other factors, these are modifiable risks, that can be treated by appropriate medication and life style changes.
Keywords: Stroke, Risk factors, case-control study, odds ratio, 95% confidence interval.
Vijaya Sorganvi, M. S. Kulkarni, Deepak Kadeli, Suhasini Atharga. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE : A CASE CONTROL STUDY International Journal of Current Research and Review. vol 06 issue 03, February, 46-52
1. Garraway M. Cerebrovascular Disease In; Text book of Public Health (Eds) Hold ww, Deleb R, Knox G Volume 3, Oxford University press: Oxford, 199; 209-226.
2. Dalal P, Bhattacharjee M Vairale J, Bhat P. UN millennium development goals: can we halt the stroke epidemic in India ? Ann Indian. Acad Neurol 2007: 10: 130-6.
3. Gupta R, Joshi P, Mohan V, Reddy S, Yusuf S. Epidemiology and causation of Coronary heart disease and stroke in India. Heart 2008; 94: 16-26.
4. Adams R et al. Update of the AHA/ASA recommendations for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attacks stroke 2008; 39: 1647-52
5. Reddy K S, Cardiovascular disease in non western countries. N England J Med. 2004; 350: 2438-2440
6. Dalal PM, Burden of Stroke: Indian Perspective. Int.J. Stroke 2006; 1:164-166
7. Prasad Kameshwar, Singhat Kapil K. Stroke in young: An Indian Prospective 2010;58(3):343-350
8. Anand K, Chowdhury D, Singh KB, Pandav CS Kapoor SK. Estimation of mortality and morbidity due to stroke in India. Neuroepidemiology. 2001; 20: 208-211.
9. Jamrozik K, Broadhurst RJ, The role of lifestyles factors in the etiology of stroke: A population based case control study in peth, western Australia stroke 1991; 25:51-59.
10. Shaper AG, Phillips AN, Docock SJ. Risk factor for stroke in middle aged British Men. British Medical Journal 1991; 302: 1111- 1115
11. Shinton R, Sagar G, Lifelong exercises and stroke BMJ 1993 307: 231-234
12. Gill JS, Shipley MJ, Tsementiziassa, Hornby Rs, Gill SK, Hitchcock EA, Beevers DG, Alcohol consumption – A risk factor for haemorrhagic and non haemorrhagic stroke. Am J Med. 1991; 90 489-497.
13. Trusen T, Lindenstrom E, Baysen G Comparison of probability of stroke between the Copenhagen city heart study and the Framingham study. Stroke 1994; 25: 802- 807.
14. Nagaraja D Gurmurthy SG. Taly AB, Subbakrishna K Sridhararama Rao BS. Risk factors for stroke: relative risk in young and elderly. Neural India 1998: 46: 183-184.
15. Dalal PM, strokes in young and elderly. Risk factors and strategies for stroke prevention. Ass. Physic Ind 1997; 47: 125- 131.
16. Bansal BC, Prakash C, Arya RK. Serum lipids platelets and fibrinolytic activity in cerebrovascular diseases. Stroke 1978; 9: 137-139.
17. Chopra JS, Praphakar S. Clinical features and risk factors in stroke in young. Acta Neurologia scandanavia 1979; 60: 2899 – 3000.
18. Srinivasan K. Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease in young: Two common causes in India stroke 1984; 15: 733-735.
19. World Health Organization. WHO collaborative study of cardiovascular disease and steroid hormone contraception: Ischemic stroke and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international multicentre, case control study. Lancet 1996; 348: 498-504.
20. World Health Organization. WHO collaborative study of cardiovascular disease and steroid hormone contraception: Hemorrhage stroke, overall stroke risk and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international, multicentre, case-control study. Lancet 1996; 348: 504-510.
21. Mohan V, Deepa M, Farooq S., Datta M, Deepa R Prevalence Awareness and Control of hypertension in Chennai. The Chennai Urban- Roral epidemiology study (CURES 62). Journal Assoc. Physicians India 2007; 55:326-32.
22. Lwanga SK, Lemeshows. Determination of sample size WHO publication WHO Geneva 1999: 8-11
23. R.P. Eapan, J H Prekh, N.T.Patel A study of clinical profile and Risk factors of cerebrovascular stroke Gujarat Medical Journal 2009, Vol.64 No. 2
24. D.Xavier, M.O. Donnel, P Pais Sigamani R Joshi, R Gupta, et al. Interstroke study: Method and Preliminary results of large stroke registry from India 2012.
25. O „ Donnell. MJ Xavier D, Liu L, Zhang H, Chinsl, Rao Melacini P et al. Inter stroke investigators, Risk factors for ischemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case control study. Lancet 2010 July 2010; 376 (9735): 112-23.