IJCRR - 6(7), April, 2014
PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS IN FIRST ATTACK MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PATIENTS OF MEWAR REGION: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Author: Jitendra Jeenger, Swati Wadhwa, Devendra Mohan Mathur
Background: According to various studies psychiatric morbidities in post Myocardial Infarction (MI) patients increases the morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidities is important for to early intervention and to improve the quality of life. There is a paucity of research on Indian subjects and specially those of this area of south Rajasthan. Aim: To find out the prevalence of Depression and Anxiety following first attack of acute Myocardial Infarction. Method: 60 cases with an established diagnosis of first episode of acute MI were assessed in cardiac OPD by a cardiologist during follow up, after 2-3 months of attack and they were compared with 60 healthy controls. Results: 40% myocardial infarction patients were found to be suffering from depressive episode, 35% from anxiety symptoms and 16.6% from mixed anxiety and depressive symptoms. Severity of Depression and Anxiety also measured and findings were significantly associated with MI patients as compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: The high proportion of patients with MI found to be suffering from symptoms of depression and/ or anxiety two to three months after MI highlights the essential need to assess these symptoms in all such patients during the post - MI period as they merit appropriate treatment along with that of MI.
Jitendra Jeenger, Swati Wadhwa, Devendra Mohan Mathur. PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS IN FIRST ATTACK MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PATIENTS OF MEWAR REGION: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY International Journal of Current Research and Review. 6(7), April, 79-85
1. Enas EA, Senthilkumar A. Conquering the epidemic of coronary artery disease among Indians: crucial role of cardiologists. Cardiol Today 2001; 5 : 282–94.
2. Pais P, Pogue J, Gerstein H, Zachariah E, Savitha D, Jayprakash S, et al. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Indians: a casecontrol study. Lancet. 1996; 348 : 358–63.
3. Pennink BW, Beekman AT, Honig A, et al. Depression and cardiac mortality: results from a community-based longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:221-7.
4. Stansfeld S, Fuhrer R. Depression and coronary heart disease. In: Stansfeld S, Marmot M, eds. Stress and the heart. London: BMJ Books 2002:101-23.
5. T hombs BD, Bass EB, Ford DE et al. Prevalence of depression in survivors of acute myocardial infarction and review of evidence. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:30-38.
6. B lazer DG, Kessler RC, Mcgonagle KA et al. The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a nation community sample. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151:979-86.
7. B urill PW, Johnson GA, Tamozozak FD et al. Prevalence of depression after stroke. Br J Psych 1995;166:320-327.
8. Kaplan HI and Sadock BJ, (2005); comprehensive textbook of psychiatry vol. II, 8th edi; cardiovascular disorder 2136-2147.
9. Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F, Talajic M. Coronary Heart Disease/Myocardial Infarction: Depression and 18-month prognosis after Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. 1995;91(4):999–1005.
10. Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F. Depression-A cardiac risk factor in search of treatment. JAMA.2003;289(23):3171–3173.
11. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990– 2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997;349:1498–1504.
12. Gautam S, Nijhawan M, Kamal P (1987); Standardization of Hindi version of Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire - Indian Journal of Psychiatry, jan-march; 29(1):63-66.
13. Mortha sajatovic MD, Lius F, Ramirez MD, Rating scales in mental health 2nd edi; BDI 80.
14. Hamilton M; Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A); The assessment of anxiety states by rating. Br J Med Psychol 1959; 32:50–55.
15. Dias CC, Mateus PS, Mateus C, Bettencourt N, Santos L, Adao L, Sampaio F, Fonseca C, Simões L, Coelho R, Ribeiro VG (2005); Acute coronary syndrome and depression. Rev Port Cardiol. Apr; 24(4):507-16.
16. Spijkerman T, de Jonge P, van den Brink RH (2005); Depression following myocardial infarction: first-ever versus ongoing and recurrent episodes. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. Nov-Dec;27(6):381-2
17. Denollet J, Strik JJ, Lousberg R, Honig A (2006); Recognizing increased risk of depressive comorbidity after myocardial infarction, looking for 4 symptoms of anxietydepression. Psychother Psychosom. 75(6):346- 52.
18. Frasure-Smith N, Lespérance F (2008); Depression and anxiety as predictors of 2-year cardiac events in patients with stable coronary artery disease Arch Gen Psychiatry. Jan; 65(1):62-71.
19. Akhtar MS, Malik SB, Ahmed MM.(2004);Symptoms of depression and anxiety in post-myocardial infarction patients. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004 Oct;14(10):615-8.
20. Martens EJ, Smith OR, Winter J, Denollet J, Pedersen SS (2008); Cardiac history, prior depression and personality predict course of depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction. Psychol Med. Feb; 38(2):257-64. Epub 2007 Sep 17.
21. Rafanelli C et al. (2005);[Stressful life events and depressive disorders as risk factors for acute coronary heart disease]. Ital Heart J Suppl. 2005 Feb;6(2):105-10.
22. Meneses R, Almeida MC et al (2007); Depression in patients with myocardial infarction. Rev Port Cardiol. Nov; 26(11):1143-65.