IJCRR - Vol 06 Issue 08, April, 2014
PURE TONE AUDIOMETRIC EVALUATION IN NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC PATIENTS
Author: S. Vijayasundaram, P. Karthikeyan, V. Nirmal Coumare
The prevalence of hearing defects in the Indian population is estimated to be about 6%. The risk factors are age, noise, cardiovascular system disorders, Diabetes mellitus and social factors. Aims: The aims of the study were to find out the prevalence and type of hearing loss among diabetic subjects, to establish if there was a relationship between age, duration, severity and complications of Diabetes to the changes in hearing threshold and to establish if there was a relationship between height, weight, family history, diet, blood pressure, blood group and blood cholesterol. Materials and methods: This study included 100 diabetic patients (NIDDM) and 200normal subjects (controls) in the age group of 30 – 59 years, and the controls were matched for age and sex. A detailed clinical examination was performed using a diabetic proforma and screened for complications. The diagnosis was established with the help of tuning fork tests and audiometric analysis. Diabetic patients were categorized into groups and subgroups and were analyzed for statistical significance. Results: It was found that diabetics have an increased mean threshold of hearing at higher frequencies than non-diabetics. The type of hearing loss is typically bilateral and symmetrical, involving higher frequencies. The complications of the disease, sex, weight, height, family history, diet, blood pressure, blood group and blood cholesterol had no significant correlation with the type of hearing loss and with mean average hearing threshold. Conclusion: A relationship exists between the hearing impairment in diabetic patients and other aspects of the disease, which include age, duration and control of Diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Pure tone audiometry, Non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus, Hearing loss
S. Vijayasundaram, P. Karthikeyan, V. Nirmal Coumare. PURE TONE AUDIOMETRIC EVALUATION IN NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC PATIENTS International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 06 Issue 08, April, 63-70
1. Agarwal MK. Otorhinolaryngological studies in diabetics. IJO and HNS 1998;50:116-121.
2. Verma A, Bisht MS, Ahuja GK. Involvement of central nervous system in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1984;47:414-416.
3. Axelsson A, Fagerberg SE. Auditory function in diabetics. ActaOtolaryngologica 1968;66:49-64.
4. Axelsson A, Fagerberg SE. Hearing in diabetics. ActaOtolaryngologica 1978;356:1- 23 (supplement).
5. Jorgensen MD, Buch NH. Studies on inner ear functions and cranial nerves in diabetics. ActaOtolaryngologica 1961;53:350-364.
6. Zelenka J, Kozak P. Disorder in the bloodsupply of the inner ear as an early symptom of diabetic angiopathy. JLO 1965;79:314-319.
7. Taylor IG, Irwin J. Some audiological aspects of diabetes mellitus. JLO 1978;92:9-13.
8. Gibbin KP, Davis CG. A hearing survey in diabetes mellitus. Clinical Otolaryngology 1981;6(3):345-350.
9. Robin PE. Deafness and Diabetes (Editorial). Clinical Otology 1981;6:309.
10. Miller JJ, Beck L, Davis A, Jones DE, Thomas AE. Hearing loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy. AJO 1983;4:342-346.
11. Kurien M, Thomas K, Bhanu TS. Hearing thresholds in patients with diabetes mellitus. JLO 1989;103:164-168.
12. Cullen JR, Cinnamond MJ. Hearing loss in diabetics. JLO 1993;107;179-182.
13. KrocsColloboration Study Group. Blood glucose control and the evolution of diabetic retinopathy and albuminuria. NEJM 1984;311:365-376.
14. Olsen S, Noffsinger D. Comparison of one new and three old tests of auditory adaptation. Archives of Otolaryngology 1974;99:94-99.
15. Friedman SA, Schulman RH, Weiss S. Hearing and diabetic neuropathy. Archives of Internal Medicine 1975;135:573-576.
16. Sieger A, White NH,Skinner MW, Spector GJ. Auditory function in children with diabetes mellitus. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 1983;92:237-241.
17. Wilson R, Soeldner JS. The relationship of idiopathic sudden hearing loss to diabetes mellitus. Laryngoscope 1982;92:155-160.
18. Snashall SE. Bakesey audiometry and tone and reflex decay tests in diabetes. Archives of Otolaryngology 1977; 103:342-343.
19. Costa OA. Inner ear pathology in experimental diabetes. Laryngoscope 1967;77:68-75.
20. Virtaniemi J, Laakso M, Nuutien J. Auditory brainstem latencies in type I (IDDM) diabetic patients. AJO 1993;14(6):413-418.
21. Rudolph. Inner ear damage secondary to Diabetes mellitus. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1990;117:635-640.
22. Wackym PA, Linthicum FH. Diabetes mellitus and hearing loss: clinical and histopathological relationship. AJO 1986;7:176-182.
23. Sharma R et al. Brain stem evoked response in patients with diabetes mellitus. IJO 2000;52:223-228.
24. Sharma R. Audiovestibular changes in diabetes mellitus. IJO and HNS 1999;51:40-43.
25. Kutty SR et al. Hearing loss in diabetes mellitus. IJO and HNS 1998;4:131-135.
26. Tay HL, et al. Diabetes mellitus and hearing loss. ClinOtolaryngol 1995;20(2):130-4.
27. Huang YM, Pan CY, Rui G, Cai XH, Yu LM, Chou CY. Study on the hearing impairment in diabetic patients. Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 1990;25:354-356.
28. Carmen RE, Svihovec DA, Gocka EF, Gay GC, House LR. Audiometric configuration as a reflection of low plasma glucose and diabetes. AJO 1989;10:372-379.