IJCRR - Vol 06 Issue 24, December, 2014
NORMATIVE VALUES OF TANDEM AND UNIPEDAL STANCE IN SCHOOL CHILDREN
Author: Sneha D. Dhanani, Lata D. Parmar
Background: There were very few studies done on unipedal stance in school children and there was no study found on tandem stance in school children to the best of our knowledge Aim: To establish normative values of tandem and unipedal stance in school children. Study Design: Descriptive study Methodology: 250 subjects, meeting inclusion-exclusion criteria were included Each participant then completed timed unipedal balance test on right and left foot, and tandem stance test on right foot in front of left foot. The tests were performed barefoot on a floor surface. The timed measurements were completed using a stopwatch. Results: Mean age of participants was 11.76±3.499. Mean range of unipedal stance (rt. and lt.) between 6-17 years (total participants) was 1.14±0.352 to 2.55±0.702 seconds. Mean range of tandem stance between 6-17 years was 1.47±0.520 to 3.26±0.953.The results showed that age had statistically significant correlation with the both static balance tests (p value 0.000 and r value >0.5), but gender did not show any significant correlation for balance performance in both these static balance tests. BMI also did not show any statistically significant correlation for both the static balance tests. (p value 0.000, r value <0.5). There is statistically significant correlation found between rt. and lt. unipedal stance. (r value .817** and p value 0.000 ) Conclusion: Reference values for tandem and unipedal stance were established. Key Words: Balance skills, Dynamic balance, Static balance
Keywords: Balance skills, Dynamic balance, Static balance
Sneha D. Dhanani, Lata D. Parmar. NORMATIVE VALUES OF TANDEM AND UNIPEDAL STANCE IN SCHOOL CHILDREN International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 06 Issue 24, December, 24-30
1. Darcy A. Umphred, NEUROLOGICAL REHABILITATION, Fifth Edition, ch.23, pg no.740.
2. Chemin Joseph Aiguier et al, Development of Locomotor Balance Control in Healthy Children, Vol. 22, No. 4,1998,pp. 527–532.
3. Westcott SL et al, Evaluation of postural stability in children: current theories and assessment tools. Phys Ther. 1997; 77:629-645.
4. Parncutt, R. et al (2006), prenatal development, The child as musician Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, pp1-31.
5. Susan J. Herdman, Vestibular Rehabilitation, Third Edition, Ch.1, pg no.2, 3.
6. Gaye W. Cronin et al, Pediatric Vestibular Disorders Recognition, Evaluation and Treatment, Vestibular Disorders Association.
7. Barbara A. Springer et al, Normative Values for the Unipedal Stance Test with Eyes Open and Closed,Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy Vol. 30;1:07.
8. Fotini Venetsanou et al , THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND GENDER ON BALANCE SKILLS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, Physical Education and Sport Vol. 9, No 1, 2011, pp. 81 – 90.
9. Raghupathi K et al, Comparative Analysis of Coordinative and Balancing Abilities Among 10-15 Years of Rural and Urban School Boys, Volume: 2, Issue: 5, May 2013, ISSN No 2277-8160.
10. Maria Nida c. et al, Development of Lower Extremity Kinetics for Balance Control in Infants and Young Children, Journal of Motor Behavior,20011,Vol.33, No.2,180-192.
11. Carolyn A Emer et al, Development of a Clinical Static and Dynamic Standing Balance Measurement Tool Appropriate for Use in Adolescents, Physical Therapy, Volume 85, Number 6, June 2005
12. V. Hatzitak et al, Perceptual-Motor Contributions to Static and Dynamic Balance Control in Children, Journal of Motor Behavior, 2002,Vol. 34, No. 2, 161–170.
13. Stanley N. Graven et al , Auditory Development in the Fetus and Infant, VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, www.nainr.com.
14. Oya Erkut At?lgan et al, The effects of postural control to gender differences in children, Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Year: 20.
15. Eva D’Hondt et al, Relationship Between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children, Physical Activity Quarterly, 2009, 26, 21-37.