IJCRR - 7(3), February, 2015
UPSTREAM DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND BREAST CANCER SCREENING AMONG NIGERIAN WOMEN
Author: Nduka, Uzoma C.
Macro level variables could help determine health outcomes for Nigerian women. Screening for breast cancer is first step to early detection. The core aim of this paper is to provoke discussion about the significance of breast screening among Nigerian women and the development of breast cancer health improvement strategies by focusing on education, income and unemployment, neighborhood conditions, and transportation. Outcome of this article could influence policy-makers and healthcare providers in establishing ways to improve contemporary health situations. It could also lead to increased awareness of the fundamental circumstances affecting population’s health.
Keywords: Breast cancer, Nigerian women
Nduka, Uzoma C.. UPSTREAM DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND BREAST CANCER SCREENING AMONG NIGERIAN WOMEN International Journal of Current Research and Review. 7(3), February, 48-53
Abazie, H.O., & Abimbola, O. (2014). Perceived health believes of breast cancer and knowledge of its early detection measures among rural women in Umuduru Mbano, Imo State. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 6(4), 148-157. Ajayi, I.O., Onibokun, A.C., & Soyannwo, O.A. (2013). Breast and cervical cancers awareness and screening practices among rural women in Ona-ara Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 16(2013), 95-99. Akande, T. (2014). Youth unemployment in Nigeria: a situational analysis. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: https://worldaffairscharlotte.wordpress. com/2014/10/09/youth-unemployment-in-nigeria-a-situation-analysis/ Akhigbe, A.O., & Omuemu, V.O. (2009). Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city. BMC Cancer, 9:203. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-203. Akinyemiju, T.F. (2012). Socio-economic and health access determinants of breast and cervical cancer screening in lowincome countries: analysis of the World Health survey. PLOSOne, 7(11), 1-8. Alexandraki, I., & Mooradian, A.D. (2010). Barriers related to mammography use for breast cancer screening among minority women. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(3), 206-218. Anyanwu, S.N., Egwuonwu, O.A., & Ihekwoba, E.C. (2011). Acceptance and adherence to treatment among breast cancer patients in Eastern Nigeria. The Breast, 20(2011), S51-S53. Austin, L.T., McNally, M., & Stewart, D.E. (2002). Breast and cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women: a literature review using the Health Belief Model. Women’s Health Issues, 12(3), 122-128. Azubuike, S.O., & Okwuokei, S.O. (2013). Knowledge, attitude and practices of women towards breast cancer in Benin City, Nigeria. Annals of Medical & Health Sciences Research, 3(2), 155-160. Calle, E.E., Flanders, D., Thun, M.J., & Martin, L.M. (1993). Demographic predictors of mammography and pap smear screening in US women. American Journal of Public Health, 83(1), 53-60. Catalano, R.A., Satariano, W.A., & Ciemins, E.L. (2003). Unemployment and the detection of early stage breast tum-ors among African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Annals of Epidemiology, 13(1), 8-15. Catalano, R.A., & Satariano, W.A. (1998). Unemployment and the likelihood of detecting early-stage breast cancer. American Journal of Public Health, 88(4), 586-589. Celaya, M.O., Berke, E.M., Onega, T.L., Gui, J., Riddle, B.L., Cherala, S.S., 7 Rees, J.R. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis and geographic access to mammography screening (New Hampshire, 1998-2004). Rural and Remote Health, 10(2):1361.CDC. (2014a). Breast cancer rates by race and ethnicity. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: http:// www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/statistics/race.htm. CDC. (2014b). Breast cancer screening rates. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: http://www.cdc.gov/ cancer/breast/statistics/screening.htm. CDC. (2012). Breast cancer. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/breastcancer/. Cho, Y.I., Johnson, T.P., Barret, R.E., Campbell, R.T., Dolecek, T.A., & Warnecke, R.B. (2011). Neighborhood changes in concentrated immigration and late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(1), 9-14. Chor, J.S., Lam, H.C., Chan, A., Lee, H.M., Fok, E… & Cheung, P. (2014). Socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer detection in Hong Kong – a high income city: retrospective epidemiological study using the breast cancer registry. PLOSOne, 9(10), 1-7. Coughlin, S.S., & King, J. (2010). Breast and cervical cancer screening among women in metropolitan areas of the United States by county-level commuting time to work and use of public transportation, 2004 and 2006. BMC Public Health, 10:146. Cunningham, J.E., Walters, C.A., Hill, E.G., Ford, M.E., BarkerElamin, T., & Bennett, C.L. (2013). Mind the gap: racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 137 (2), 589-598. Davis, T.C., Williams, M.V., Marin, E., Parker, R.M., Glass, J (2002). Health literacy and cancer communication. Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 52: 134-149. Escoffery, C., Rodgers, K.C., Kegler, M.C., Ayala, M., Pinsker, E., & Haardörfer, R. (2014). A grey literature review of special events for promoting cancer screenings. BMC Cancer, 14: 454. Flores, Y.N., Davidson, P.L., Nakazono, T.T., Carreon, D.C., Mojica, C.M., & Bastani, R. (2013). Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and race/ethnicity as predictors of breast cancer stage at diagnosis. BMC Public Health, 13:1061. Fulton, J.P., Rakowski, W., & Jones, A.C. (1995). Determinants of breast cancer screening among inner-city Hispanic women in comparison with other inner-city women. Public Health Report, 110(4), 476-482. Fulton, J.P., Buechner, J.S., Scott, H.D., DeBuono, B.A., Feldman, J.P… & Kovenock, D. (1991). A study guided by the Health Belief Model of the predictors of breast cancer screening of women ages 40 and older. Public Health Reports, 106(4), 411-420. Garbers, S., Jessop, D.J., Foti,H., Uribelarrea, M., & Chiassson, M.A. (2003). Barriers to breast cancer screening for lowincome Mexican and Dominican women in New York City. Journal of Urban Health, 80(1):81-91. Gerend, M.A., & Pai, M (2008). Social determinants of BlackWhite disparities in breast cancer mortality: a review. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Preview, 17(11), 2913-2923. Ibrahim, N.A., & Odusanya, O.O. (2009). Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC Cancer, 9:76. Janz, N.K., & Becker, M.H. (1984). The Health Belief Model: a decade later. Health Education Quarterly, 11(1), 1-47. Jerome-D’Emilia, B, & Chittams, J. (2014). Validation of a cultural cancer screening scale for mammogram utilization in a sample of African American women. Cancer Nursing, 2014 May 14. Date of Electronic Publication: 2014 May 14. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831044. Jones, L.A., & Chilton, J.A. (2002). Impact of breast cancer on African-American women: priority areas research in the next decade. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 539- 542. Keegan, T.H., Shariff-Marco, S., Sangaramoorthy, M., Koo, J., Hertz, A… & Gomez, S.L. (2014). Neighborhood influences on recreational physical activity and survival after breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control, 25(10):1295-308. Doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0431-1. Khaliq, W., Visvanathan, K., Landis, R., & Wright, S.M. (2013). Breast cancer screening preferences among hospitalized women. Journal of Women’s Health, 22(7), 637-642. Kim, S., Chukwudozie, B., & Calhoun, E. (2013). Sociodemographic characteristics, distance to the clinic, and breast cancer screening results. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 6(1): 70. Kingsley, C. (2010). Cultural and socioeconomic factors affecting cancer screening, early detection and care in Latino population. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: https://ethnomed.org/clinical/cancer/cultural-andsocioeconomic-factors-affecting-cancer-screening-earlydetection-and-care-in-the-latino-population. Lantz, P.M., Beversdorf, S., & Remington, P.L. (1995). Breast and cervical cancer screening in a low-income managed care sample: the efficacy of physician letters and phone calls. American Journal of Public Healths, 85(6), 834-836. Litaker, D., & Tomolo, A. (2007). Association of contextual factors and breast cancer screening: finding new targets to promote early detection. Journal of Women’s Health, 16(1), 36-45. Mandelblatt, J., Andrews, H., Kerner, J., Zauber, A., & Burnett, W. (1991). Determinants of late stage diagnosis of breast and cervical cancer: the impact of age, race, social class, and hospital type. American Journal of Public Health, 81(5), 646-649. Makanjuola, O.J., Amoo, P.O., Ajibade, B.L., & Makinde, O.Y. (2013). Breast cancer: knowledge and practice of breast self examination among women in rural community of Ondo State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 8(1), 32-37. Mvila, G.L., Postema, S., Marchal, G., Limbergen, E.V., Verdonck, F… & Ongeval, C.V. (2013). From the set-up of a screening program of breast cancer patients to the identification of the first BRCA mutation in the DR Congo. BMC Public Health, 14: 759. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-759. Nutbeam, D. (2000). Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promotion International, 15(3), 259-267. Obajimi, M.O., Ajayi, I.O., Oluwasola, A.O., Adedokun, B.O., Sofoluwe, A.T… & Olopade, O.I. (2013). Level of awareness of mammography among women attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria.BMC Public Health, 13:40. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2458- 13-40. Odusanya, O.O., & Tayo, O.O. (2001). Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and practice among nurses in Lagos, Nigeria. Acta Oncologica, 40(7), 844–848. Okobia, M.N., Bunker, C.H., Okonofua, F.E., & Osime, U. (2006). Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 4:11. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1397833/ Oldach, B.R., & Katz, M.L. (2014). Health literacy and cancer screening: a systematic review. Patient Education and Counselling, 94(2014), 149-157. Onega, T., Cook, A., Kirlin, B., Shi, X., Alford-Teaster, J… & Buist, D.S. (2011). The influence of travel time on breast cancer characteristics, receipt of primary therapy, and surveillance mammography. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 129(1):269-75. Doi: 10.1007/s10549-011-1549-4. Onitilo, A.A., Liang, H., Stankowski, R.V., Engel, J.M., Broton, M… & Miskowiak, D.A. (2014). Geographical and seasonal barriers to mammography services and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Remote and Rural Health, 14(3):2738. Epub 2014 Jul 14. Osime, O.C., Okojie, O., Aigbekaen, E.T., & Aigbekaen, I.J. (2008). Knowledge attitude and practice about breast cancer among civil servants in Benin City, Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine, 7(4), 192-197. Oyitso, M., & Olomukoro, C.O. (2012). Enhancing women’s development through literacy education in Nigeria. Review of European Studies, 4(4), 66-76. Park, M.J., Park,E., Choi, K.S., Jun, J.K., & Lee, H. (2011). Sociodemographic gradients in breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2005-2009. BMC Cancer, 11:257. Patel, K., Kanu, M., Liu, J., Bond, B., Brown, E… & Hargreaves, M. (2014). Factors influencing breast cancer screening in low-income African Americans in Tennessee. Journal of Community Health, 39(5), 943–950. Doi: 10.1007/ s10900-014-9834-x. Plascak, J.J., Llanos, A.A., Pennell, M.L., Weier, R.C., & Paskett, E.D. (2014). Neighborhood factors associated with time to resolution following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 23(12):2819-28. Doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14- 0348. Pruthi, S., Shmidt, E., Sherman, M.M., Neal, L., & WahnerRoedler, D. (2010). Promoting a breast cancer screening clinic for underserved women: a community collaboration. Ethnicity & Disease, 20(4), 463-466. Rahman, S.M., Dignan, M.B., & Shelton, B.J. (2005). A theory-based model for predicting adherence to guidelines for screening mammography among women aged 40 and older. International Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2(3), 169- 179. Rosenstock, I.M., Strecher, V.J. & Becker, M.H. (1988). Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model. Health Education Quarterly, 15(2), 175-183. Todd, A., & Stuifbergen, A. (2011). Barriers and facilitators to breast cancer screening: a qualitative study of women with multiple sclerosis. International Journal of MS Care, 13(2), 49-56. Tsunematsu, M., Kawasaki, H., Masuoka, Y., & Kakehashi, M. (2013). Factors affecting breast cancer screening behavior in Japan- assessment using the Health Belief Model and conjoint analysis. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14 (10), 6041-6048. Uche, E.E. (1999). Cancer awareness among a Nigerian population. Tropical Doctor, 29(1), 39-40. WHO. (2014). Breast cancer: prevention and control. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: http://www.who. int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/index3.html. WHO. (2010). A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Retrieved January 13, 2015 from World Wide Web: http://www.who.int/sdhconference/ resources/ConceptualframeworkforactiononSDH_eng.pdf. Zenk, S.N., Tarlov, E., & Sun, J. (2006). Spatial equity in facilities providing low- or no-fee screening mammography in Chicago neighborhoods. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. Doi: 10.1007/ s11524-005-9023-4. Retrieved from http://faculty.tamuc. edu/jsun/shannon_jm.pdf.