IJCRR - 7(3), February, 2015
DETERMINATION OF SEX USING DRY ADULT HUMAN SACRUM- A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY
Author: Nisha Yadav, Kopal Saini, Kalpana Patil
Aim: To find out similarities and differences in the metrical values of different sacral parameters in males and females and to
highlight the best parameter that could be used to study sexual dimorphism of sacrum.
Materials and methods: 140 (83 male and 57 female) adult human sacra were collected from Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra. The measurements included ventral straight length and maximum breath of sacrum, sacral index, maximum transverse and antero-posterior diameter and index of body of first sacral vertebra. Demarking points for these parameters were used for identification of sex of sacrum.
Results: The average values of sacrum for ventral straight length was found to be 104.7±5.94 mm in male and 92.6±6.1 mm in female, maximum breadth was 102.93±4.83 mm in male and 104.77±6.48 mm in female and sacral index was 98.44±4.69 mm in male and 113.23±5.61 mm in female. The average values of first sacral vertebra for transverse diameter was 48.48±4.21 mm
in male and 40.75±3.51 mm in female, antero-posterior diameter was 29.12±2.47 mm in male and 26.93±2 mm in female and index was 60.28±4.96 mm in male and 66.36±5.04 mm in female.
Conclusion: Sacral index was found to be the best parameter for sex determination of sacrum amongst the parameter studied. Using sacral index alone 27.71% of bones in males and 57.9% of bones in females could be identified. However not a single parameter could identify 100% of the bones.
Keywords: Sacrum, Sacral index, Vertebra
Nisha Yadav, Kopal Saini, Kalpana Patil. DETERMINATION OF SEX USING DRY ADULT HUMAN SACRUM- A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY International Journal of Current Research and Review. 7(3), February, 22-28
1. Kothapalli J, Velichety SD, Desai V, Zammer MR. Morphometric study of sexual dimorphism in adult sacra of south Indian population. Int J Bio Med Res. 2012; 3(3): 2076- 2081.
2. Standring S, editor. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical basis of Clinical Practice. 40th edition. Spain: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008. p. 724-728.
3. Jit and Singh. Sexing of adult clavicles. Indian journal of medical research.1966; 54: 551-571.
4. Mishra SR, Singh PJ, Agarwal AK, Gupta RN. Identification of sex of sacrum of Agra Region. J.Anat.Soc.India. 2003; 52(2): 132-36.
5. Patel MM, Gupta BD, Singel TC. Sexing of sacrum by sacral index and Kimura’s base-wing index. J. Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2005; 27(1): 5-9.
6. Math SC, Nandyal VB., Shetty VB, Pawar JD, Raj Kumar KR. Study of sexual dimorphism in human sacrum- in North Karnataka. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2010; 3(1): 13-19.
7. Jana TK., Koley TK., Saha SB., Basu SK. Variation and sexing of adult human sacrum. Journal of Anatomical society of India.1988; 37:2-3.
8. Singh H, Singh J, Bargotra RN. Sacral index as observed anthropometrically in the region of Jammu. Journal of Anatomical society of India.1988; 37(1).
9. Mazumdar S, Ray A, Mazumdar A, Mazumdar S, Sinha A, Vasisht S. Sexual dimorphism and regional difference in size of sacrum: A study in Eastern India. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 2012; 5(3): 298-307.
10. Davivongs V. The pelvic girdle of Australian AboriginesSex difference and sex determination. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.1963; 21: 443-455.
11. Flander LB. Univariate and multivariate methods for sexing the sacrum. Am. J.Phys.Anthrop.1978; 49: 103-110.
12. Raju PB, Singh S, Padmanabhan R. Sex determination and sacrum. Journal of Anatomical Society of India.1980; 30:13-15.
13. Arora AK, Gupta P, Mahajan S, Kapoor SS. Significance of sacral index in estimation of sex in sacra of cadavers in Punjab. J. Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2010; 32(2): 104- 107.
14. Sachdeva K, Singla RK, Kalsey G, Sharma G. Role of sa- Sachdeva K, Singla RK, Kalsey G, Sharma G. Role of sacrum in sexual dimorphism- A morphometric study. J. Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2011; 33(3): 206-210
. 15. Shree Krishna HK, Yatraj S, Vijaya Kumari. Credibility of various Indices of sacrum in identification of sex of sacrum. International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine. 2013; 3(2): 58-63.