IJCRR - Vol 07 Issue 09, May, 2015
PREVALENCE OF MALARIA AND HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION IN FEBRILE PATIENTS IN KANO NORTHWEST NIGERIA
Author: Sharif A. A, Dabo N. T., Getso M. I.
Background and Objectives: Malaria and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections are co-endemic throughout much of the tropical and Sub-Saharan Africa and both present major threat to public health. Nigeria is endemic for both Malaria and Hepatitis B virus infections. Presence of both infections concurrently in an individual might have significant clinical and public health implications. Hence the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Hepatitis B-Malaria co-infections in a tertiary health center in Northwestern Nigeria.
Methodology: The study was carried out on 200 patients presenting with fever to the General Outpatient Department (GOPD) of the Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital (MMSH) Kano using Gold Standard microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT).
Results: Fifty one (25.5%) out of the total subjects studied were malaria positive. Females presented with higher rate of malaria infection with 18% prevalence than males with 7.5%. Age group 15-24 had the highest malaria prevalence (11%), followed by age group 25-34 with 6.5%. Thirteen (6.5%) subjects were HBsAg positive. Males had higher rate of infection with 4.5% prevalence than females with 2.0%. Nine individuals representing 4.5% of the total population had co-infection with higher prevalence observed among the males with 3.0%. Age groups 25-34 were observed to have high co-infection rate of 1.5% and the least prevalence was observed among the age group 15-24 with 0.5% prevalence for both males and females.
Conclusion: These findings ware discussed in the light of the prevalence of co-infection with the two ailments and showed a decreasing trend of the infections.
Keywords: Malaria, Hepatitis B, co-infection, MMSH, Kano
Sharif A. A, Dabo N. T., Getso M. I.. PREVALENCE OF MALARIA AND HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION IN FEBRILE PATIENTS IN KANO NORTHWEST NIGERIA International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 07 Issue 09, May, 61-65
1. Andrade BB, Santos CJN, Camargo LM, Souza-Neto SM., Reis-Fiho A: Hepatitis B infection is associated with asymptomatic malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS ONE, 2011, 6(5): e19841
2. Cheesbrough, M: District laboratory practice in tropical countries, part 1. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 2005, Pp 239-245
3. David OM, Oluduro AO, Ariyo AB, Ayeni DI, and Famurewa OI: Sero-epidemiological survey of hepatitis B surface antigenemia in children and adolescents in Ekiti State, Nigeria. J of pub health and Epid, 2012, 5(1): 11-14
4. Dawaki SS and Kawo AH: Seroprevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women attending urban maternity hospital in Kano: Nig J of microb, 2006, 20:705-709
5. Esumeh FI, Ugbomoiko D, and Isibor JO: Seroprevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors in central hospital Benin City, Nigeria. J of med lab sci,2003, 12(2): 52-55
6. Earle, WS, Perex M: Enumeration of parasites in the blood of malaria patients: J of lab and clinical med, 1932, 1(7): 1124
7. Friemanis GL, Owuso-Ofori S, Allain JP: Hepatitis B virus Infection does not significantly influence plasmodium parasite density in asymptomatic infections in Ghanian transfusion recipients. PLoS ONE, 2012, 7(11):e49967
8. Gambo IM, Rabiu AM Muhammad MB, Shugaba AI: Seroprevalence of HBsAg among Fulani Nomads in Toro North Eastern Nigeria. Global adv research J of Medicine and Med Sciences, 2012, 1(8): 214-217
9. Gobir Z, Tukur Z: Prevalence of Malaria parasitemia using rapid diagnostic test among apparently healthy children in Kano, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Trop, 2014, 1(6):1-4
10. Hamza M, Samaila AA, Yakasai AM, Babashani M, Borodo MM, Habib AG: Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C virus infections among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital in North western Nigeria. Nig J of Basic Clin Sci, 2013, 10: 76-81
11. Igwe NM, Joannes UO, Chukwuma OB, Chukwudi OR, Oliaemeka EP, Maryrose AU, Joseph, A: Prevalence and parasite density of asymptomatic malaria parasiteamia among unbooked paturients at Abakaliki, Nigeria. J of Basic Clin and Repro Sci ,2014, (3):44-8
12. Jeya, DB., Botelho de suza, RA., Batista da Silva, E: Cohuman infection by plasmodium and hepatitis B: Clinical aspect, Immunological and Serological: Tropical medicine foundation of amazon, 2010.
13. Mazie JB, Barcus TT, Nicholas JW, Kantilaras JF, Schwartz, IK, Andrew C, Baird JK, :Hepatitis B infection and severeplasmodium falciparum malaria in Vietnamese adults: Amer J of tropical medicine and hygiene, 2002, 66(2), 140- 142
14. Mukhtar HM, Sulaiman AM, Jones M: Safety of blood transfusion: Prevalence of HBsAg In donor in Zaria: Nig J of Surgical research, 2005, 7(4): 290-292
15 Ndako JA, Nwankiti OO, Echeonwu GON, Junaid SA, .Anaele O, Anthony TJ: Studies on prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B surface antigen Among secondary school Students In North central Nigeria. Serria leone journal of Biomedical research, 2011, 3(3): 163-68
16. Nneka O: Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection among commercial sex workers in Keffi, Nigeria. Nassarawa State University, 2007, 1-18 [Dessertation]
17. Nwokedi EO, Odimayo MS, Emokpae AM, Yahaya IA, Sadiq MN, Okwori EE: Seroprevalence of HBsAg among patients attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Nigerian journal of medicine, 2010, 19(4):423-6
18. Okonkwo, Soleye FA, Alli JA, Ojezele MO, Udeze AO, Nwanze JC, Adewale OG, Iheanyi,O: Seroprevalence of HBsAg Antigenemia among patients in Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria.Global journal of medical research,2010, 10(2): 140-149
19. Paulyn TA, Terdzungwe TS: Prevalence of plasmodia and HBV co-infection in blood donors at Bishop Murray Murray Medical Centre, Markurdi, Benue State, Nigeria: Asian pacific Journal of tropical medicine, 2010, pp 22- 226
20 Sule WF, Okonko IO, Ebute AJ, Donbraye E, Fadeyi A, Udeze AO, Alli JA : Farming and non farming individuals attending grimard catholic Hospital Anyingba Kogi State Nigeria, were Comparable in Hepatitis B surface antigen Seroprevalence. Current reaserch journal of Biological sciences, 2010, 2(4): 278-282
21. Thurz, MR Kwiatkowski D, Torok ME. Allsopp CE, Greenwood BM: Association of hepatitis B surface antigen carriage with severe malaria in Gambian children: Natural Medicine, 1995, (1), pp 374-375.
22. Ugwuja E, Ugwu N: Seroprevalence of HBsAg and liver function test among adolescents in abakaliki, south eastern Nigeria. The internet journal of tropical medicine, 2010, 6(2)
23. World health organization (2010): A global strategy for Malaria control, Geneva. www.who.int/malaria/publication/ world-malaria-report-2010/en/ (accessed on 13/10/2013)
24. World health organization (2012): world malaria report fact sheet www.who.int/malaria/media/world-malaria-report-2012/en/ (accessed on 12/09/2013)
25. World health organization (2013): world malaria report fact sheet www.who.int/malaria/publication/world-malariareport-2013/en/ (accessed on 15/02/2014)
26 Yunusa I, Minjibir AI, Ahmad IM, Madobi AL, Abdulkadir RS, Huzaifa U, Kabir N, Ezeanyika LU: Low body Mass index does not correlate with HBsAg infection in Female adolescents: British journal of Applied Science and technology, 2014, 4(8):1230-1237.