IJCRR - 7(18), September, 2015
TYPE 2 DIABETES: A REVIEW OF CURRENT TRENDS
Author: Ashwini N. S.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the frequency has become worldwide. Because of this, there is always an epidemic in some countries of the world, with the number of people affected is expected that within the next decade to double due to the increasing aging of the population, thus increasing the existing burden of health care providers, particularly in the less developed countries. This review is based on a search Medline, Cochrane Database of Systemic journals and references to the literature list at the bottom.Subject heading and key wordsused include type 2 diabetes, the prevalence, the current diagnosis and therapy in progress. Onlyarticles in English were included. Early detection and diagnosis is still for the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria include clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has been found yet for the disease;Treatment details, however, include lifestyle changes, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin sensitizers such as metformin, a biguanidethat reduces insulin resistance, is still the firstline drug specifically for overweight patients.Other effective drugs includesnonsulfonylureasecretagogues, thiazolidinediones, inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase and insulin.Recent research in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes has led to the introduction of new drugs such as glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11s-1-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, glucokinase activators of insulin release and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled
fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon receptor antagonists, inhibitors of the hepatic metabolism of glucose production and fast release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin has been approved in 2006, but was withdrawn from the market due to low patronage.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Diagnosis, Administration, New medicines
Ashwini N. S.. TYPE 2 DIABETES: A REVIEW OF CURRENT TRENDS International Journal of Current Research and Review. 7(18), September, 61-66
1. Ahmed AM. History of diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J 2002 Apr; 23(4): 373- 378.
2. Diabetes mellitus history- from ancient to modern times. http://science.jrank.org/pages/2044/Diabetes-Mellitus.html.
3. Patlak M. New weapons to combat an ancient disease: treating diabetes. FASEB J 2002 Dec; 16(14): 1853.
4. Maitra A, Abbas AK. Endocrine system. In: Kumar V, Fausto N, Abbas AK (eds). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease (7th ed) 2005. Philadelphia, Saunders; 1156-1226.
5. Chen L, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ. The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus: present and future perspectives. Nature reviews endocrinology. www.nature.com/uidfinder.
6. Genetic basis of type 1 and type2 diabetes, obesity, and their complications. Advances and emerging opportunities in diabetes research: a Strategic Planning report of the DMICC. www2. niddk.nih.gov/NR.
7. Azevedo M, Alla S. Diabetes in sub-saharan Africa: kenya, mali, mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and zambia. Int J Diabetes DevCtries 2008 Oct; 28(4): 101-108.
8. Global burden of diabetes. International Diabetes federation. Diabetic atlas fifth edition 2011, Brussels.http://www.idf.org/ diabetesatlas.
9. Chamnan P, Simmons RK, Forouhi NG, Luben R. KhawKy, Wareham NJ et al. Incidence of type 2 diabetes using proposed HbA1c diagnostic criteria in the EPIC-Norflok cohort: Implication for preventive strategies. http://care.diabetesjournal.org.
10. Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 2001 Dec; 414(6865):782-787.
11. Mbanya JC. The burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the African diaspora.www.medscape.com/view article/560718_2.
12. Department of Health and Human Services. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf.
13. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimate for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004; 127(5): 1047-1053 .
14. Yach D, Hawkes C, Gould CL, Hofman KJ. The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control. JAMA 2004 Jun; 291(21): 2616-2622.
15. Ripsin CM, Kang H, Urban RJ. Management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am Fam Physician 2009 Jan; 79(1): 29-36.
16. Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 2001 Sep; 345(11): 790-797.
17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults with diagnosed Diabetes United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2000”Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (November 2004) MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; 53(45): 1066-1068.
18. Barlow SE and the Expert committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment and treatment of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity: Summary report. Paediatrics 2007; 120: S164-S192 .
19. Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, Henley WE, Depledge M, Wallace RB, et al. Association of urinary bisphenol A concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. JAMA 2008 Sep; 300(11): 1303-1310.
20. Rother KI. Diabetes treatment–bridging the divide. N Engl J Med 2007 Apr; 356(15): 1499-1501.
21. McCarthy MI. Genomics, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. N Engl J Med 2010 Dec; 363(24): 2339-2350. 22. Walley AJ, Blakemore AI, Froguel P. Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Hum Mol Genet 2006 Oct; 15(Spec No 2): R124-R130.
23. Camastra S, Bonora E, Del Prato S, Rett K, Weck M, Ferrannini E; EGIR (European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance). Effect of obesity and insulin resistance on resting and glucoseinduced thermogenesis in man.Int J ObesRelatMetabDisord 1999 Dec; 23(12):1307-1313.
24. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J; IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005 Sep; 366(9491):1059-1062.
25. Powers AC. Diabetes mellitus. In: Fauci AS, Braunwauld E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J (eds). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine.17th ed, New York, McGraw-Hill; 2008: 2275-2304.
26. Jack L Jr, Boseman L, Vinicor F. Aging Americans and diabetes. A public health and clinical response. Geriatrics 2004 Apr;59(4):14-17.
27. Lovejoy JC. The influence of dietary fat on insulin resistance. CurrDiab Rep 2002 Oct; 2(5):435-440 28. Kahn CR. BantingLecture.Insulin action, diabetogenes, and the cause of type II diabetes. Diabetes 1994 Aug; 43(8):1066-1084.
29. Robertson RP. Antagonist: diabetes and insulin resistance– philosophy, science, and the multiplier hypothesis. J Lab Clin Med 1995 May; 125(5):560- 564, discussion 565.
30. Fujioka K. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and the role of incretin hormones and beta-cell dysfunction. JAAPA 2007; suppl 3-8.
31. Garcia-Roves PM. Mitochondrial pathophysiology and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch PhysiolBiochem 2011 Jul; 117(3):177- 187.
32. Cox EM, Elelman D. Test for screening and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Clin Diabetes 2009; 4(27):132-138 .
33. Harris MI, Klein R, Welborn TA, Knuiman MW. Onset of NIDDM occurs at least 4-7 yr before clinical diagnosis. Diabetes Care 1992 Jul; 15(7):815- 819.
34. International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:1-8 .
35. Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali WA, Faris PD, Cornuz J. Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2007 Dec; 298(22):2654-2664
36. Yoon KH, Lee JH, Kim JW, Cho JH, Choi YH, Ko SH, et al. Epidemic obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asia. Lancet 2006 Nov; 368(9548):1681-1688.
37. Boffetta P, Mclerran D, Chan Y, Manami I, Sinha R, Gupta PC, et al. Body mass index and diabetes mellitus in Asia. A cross sectional pooled analysis of 900,000 individuals in the Asia cohort consortium 2011.Available at www. plosoni.org/article/info.
38. Chiniwala N, Jabbour S. Management of diabetes mellitus inthe elderly. CurrOpinEndocrinol Diabetes Obes 2011 Apr; 18(2):148-152.
39. Collier CA, Bruce CR, Smith AC, Lopaschuk G, Dyck DJ. Metformin counters the insulin-induced suppression of fatty acid oxidation and stimulation of triacyglycerol storage in rodents skeletal muscle. Am J PhysiolEndocrinolMetab 2006; 219(1):182-189 .
40. Kim YD, Park KG, Lee YS, Park YY, Kim DK, Nedumaran B, et al. Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMPactivated protein kinase-dependent regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor SHP. Diabetes 2008 Feb; 57(2):306-314.
41. van Staa T, Abenhaim L, Monette J. Rates of hypoglycemia in users of sulfonylureas. J ClinEpidemiol 1997 Jun; 50(6):735- 741.
42. Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Individual sulfonylureas and serious hypoglycemia in older people. J Am GeriatrSoc 1996 Jul; 44(7):751- 755.
43. Scheen AJ. Drug interactions of clinical importance with antihyperglycaemic agents: an update. Drug Saf 2005; 28(7):601-631.
44. Fuhlendorff J, Rorsman P, Kofod H, Brand CL, Rolin B, MacKay P, et al. Stimulation of insulin release by repaglinide and glibenclamide involves both common and distinct processes. Diabetes 1998 Mar; 47(3):345-351.
45. Blickle JF. Meglitinide analogues: a review of clinical data focused on recent trials. Diabetes Metab 2006 Apr; 32(2):113-120. 46. Yki-jarvinen H. Thiazolidinediones. N Engl J Med 2004; 351(11):1106-1118.
47. Coniff RF, Shapiro JA, Seaton TB, Bray GA. Multicenter, placebo-controlled trial comparing acarbose (BAY g 5421) with placebo, tolbutamide, and tolbutamide-plus-acarbose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 1995 May;98(5):443-451.
48. Kawamori R, Tajima N, Iwamoto Y, Kashiwagi A, Shimamoto K, Kaku K; Voglibose Ph-3 Study Group. Voglibose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double-blind trial in Japanese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Lancet 2009 May; 373(9675): 1607-1614.
49. Stonehouse AH, Darsow T, Maggs DG. Incretin-based therapies.J Diabetes 2011.
50. Pratley RE, Salsali A. Inhibition of DPP-4: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin 2007 Apr; 23(4):919- 931.
51. Barnett A. DPP-4 inhibitors and their potential role in the management of type 2 diabetes. Int J ClinPract 2006 Nov; 60(11):1454-1470.
52. Mayfield JA, White RD. Insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes: rescue, augmentation, and replacement of beta-cell function. Am Fam Physician 2004 Aug; 70(3):489-500. 53. Burge MR, SchadeDS.Insulins.EndocrinolMetabClin North Am 1997 Sep;26(3):575-598.
54. Cameron CG, Bennett HA. Cost-effectiveness of insulin analogues for diabetes mellitus. CMAJ 2009 Feb;180(4):400-407.
55. Rosenstock J, Lorber DL, Gnudi L, Howard CP, Bilheimer DW, Chang PC, et al. Prandial inhaled insulin plus basal insulin glargine versus twice daily biaspart insulin for type 2 diabetes: a multicentrerandomised trial. Lancet 2010 Jun; 375(9733): 2244- 2253.
56. Black C, Cummins E, Royle P, Philip S, Waugh N. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of inhaled insulin in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2007 Sep; 11(33):1- 126.
57. Inhaled insulin and diabetes. Diabetes monitor. Information, education, and support for people with diabetes. Available at: www.diabetesmonitor.com/ inhaled.htm. 58. Mikhail N. Quick-release Bromocriptine for Treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Curr Drug Deliv 2011.
59. Tahrani AA, Bailey CJ, Del Prato S, Barnett AH. Management of type 2 diabetes: new and future developments in treatment. Lancet 2011 Jul; 378(9786):182-197.