IJCRR - 7(19), October, 2015
GENDER DIFFERENCE ON BEHAVIORAL CHANGES AFTER COLD STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Author: B. Manikandan, E. Kayalvizhi, Rupasri Dutt-Roy, Damel Lakshmi, Priyadarshini, Chandrasekhar
Aim of the study: To determine the effect of acute and chronic cold water swimming stress on male and female Wistar albino rats.
Materials and methods: This study was done in department of Physiology, MMCH and RI, Kanchipuram. 36 Wistar albino rats of both sexes were divided into six groups with six animals in each group. Group I and II control group male and female, group III and IV acute cold stress male and female, group V and VI chronic cold stress male and female respectively. Stress animals were subjected to cold stress by placing animals at 10 C until it sinks. After some interval animals were subjected to behavioral assessment by using standardized models as Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Open Field Maze (OPM).
Results: Statistical analysis of behavioral assessment showed significant changes in both acute and chronic cold stressed animals. In open field data showed significant increase in immobilization time (P< 0.05) accompanied with significant decrease in no. of rearing (P< 0.05) grooming (P< 0.05) and ambulation behavior both in peripheral (P< 0.05) and central squares in both male and female rats of all groups, In elevated plus maze there was a significant increase in transfer latency duration (P< 0.05) with closed arm duration (P< 0.05) significant decrease in open arm duration (P< 0.05 ) and number of times arms crossed (P< 0.05) in both male and female rats, but comparatively the female rats showed high significance of behavioral changes when compared to male rats. Simultaneously the group subjected to chronic cold stress showed more stressor level than acute group.
Conclusion: This study concluded that female rats exposed to chronic stress showed high stressor effect than acute and male rats on behavioral changes.
Keywords: Gender difference, Cold stress, Elevated plus maze (EPM), Open field maze (OPM).
B. Manikandan, E. Kayalvizhi, Rupasri Dutt-Roy, Damel Lakshmi, Priyadarshini, Chandrasekhar. GENDER DIFFERENCE ON BEHAVIORAL CHANGES AFTER COLD STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS International Journal of Current Research and Review. 7(19), October, 20-25
1. Robert J. Blanchard, Christina R. McKittrick, D. Caroline Blanchard.Animal models of social stress: Effects on behavior and brain neurochemical systems Physiology and Behavior 2001 feb 8; 261-271
2. Kvetnansky R., J. Jelokova, M. Rusnak, S. Dronjak, B. Serova, B. Nankova and E.L.Sabban. Novel stressors exaggerate tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the adrenal medulla of rats exposed to long-term cold stress”, in: Stress: Neural, Endocrine and Molecular studies.2002.Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 121-28002.
3. Pacak K1, Palkovits M, Kvetnanský R, Yadid G, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS.Effects of various stressors on in vivo norepinephrine release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and on the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. 1995 Dec 29;771:115-30.
4. Venihaki M, Gravanis A, Margioris AN. Comparative study between normal rat chromaffinand PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells: Production and effects of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Endocrinology, 1997. 138(2): 698-704.
5. Roy MP, Kirschbaum C, Steptoe A.Psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic correlates of individual differences in cortisol stress recovery in young men.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2001 May;26(4):375-91
6. Yadin E, Thomas E. Stimulation of the lateral septum attenuates immobilization-induced stress-ulcersPhysiology and behavior.1996,59(4-5), pp. 883-886.
7. Fitzpatrick F1, Christeff N, Durant S, Dardenne M, Nunez EA, Homo-Delarche F. Glucocorticoids in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse: basal serum levels, effect of endocrine manipulation and immobilization stress.Life Sci. 1992;50(14):1063-9.
8. Purret SB: Quantitative aspects of stress-induced immunomodulation. International Journal of Immunology and Pharmacology 2001; 1: 507-520.
9. Gareri P1, Falconi U, De Fazio P, De Sarro G Conventional and new antidepressant drugs in the elderly. Prog Neurobiol. 2000 Jul;61(4):353-96.
10. RimaSolianik, AlbertasSkurvydas, Dalia Mickeviciene, MariusBrazaitis. Intermittent whole-body cold immersion induces similar thermal stress but different motor and cognitive responses between males and females Cryobiology (2014)69.323–332.
11. E. Drinkwater, Effects of peripheral cooling on characteristics of local muscle. Medicine and sport science.2008.53:74-88.
12. S. Racinais, J. Oksa, Temperature and neuromuscular function. Scandinavian journal of medicine sports 20.(2010).1-18.
13. H.R. Lieberman, J.W. Castellani, A.J. Young, Cognitive function and mood during acute cold stress after extended military training and recovery. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.80 (2009) 629–636.
14. R.M. Shansky, J.Lipps, Stress-induced cognitive dysfunction: hormone–neurotransmitter interactions in the prefrontal cortex, Front. Hum. Neurosci.7 (2013) 1–6.
15. S.B. Rutkove, Effects of temperature on neuromuscular electrophysiology, Muscle Nerve 24 (2001) 867–882.
16. Kioukia-Fougia N, Antoniou K, Bekris S, Liapi C, Christofidis I, Papadopoulou-Diafoti Z. The effects of stress exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thymus, thyroid hormones, and glucose levels.ProgNeuropsychopharmacolBiol Psychiatry. 2002;26:823–830.
17. NuriaDaviu , RaulAndero , Antonio Armario , RoserNadal, Sex differences in the behavioural and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal response to contextual fear conditioning in rats Hormones and Behavior 66 (2014) 713–723.
18. Claire Arnaud, Marie Joyeux, Catherine Garrel, Diane GodinRibuot, Pierre Demenge, and Christophe Ribuot.Free-radical production triggered by hyperthermia contributes to heat stressinduced cardioprotection in isolated rat hearts.Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr; 135(7): 1776–1782.
19. Martha M. Faraday.Rat sex and strain differences in responses to stress.Physiology and Behavior 75 (2002) 507– 522.
20. Iva Z. Mathewsa, Aleena Wilton , Amy Styles , Cheryl M. McCormicka et al., Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 190 (2008) 33–40
21. Nitish Bhatia1, ParthaPratim Maiti1, AbhinitChoudhary et al., Animal models in the study of stress: A review. NSHM Journal of Pharmacy and Healthcare Management Vol. 02, February (2011) pp. 42-50.
22. G.M. Renarda, M.M. Sua´reza,, G.M. Levinb, M.A. Rivarola .Sex differences in rats: Effects of chronic stress on sympathetic system and anxiety. Physiology and Behavior 85 (2005) 363 – 369.
23. Thomas Campbella, Stacie Lina, Courtney DeVriesb, Kelly Lambert ., Coping strategies in male and female rats exposed to multiple stressors. Physiology and Behavior 78 (2003) 495– 504.
24. Halliwell, B., and Gutteridge . Free radicals in biology and medicine (3rd ed.). J. M. C. (1999); Oxford University Press.
25. Williams T.D.M., Carter D.A., Lightman S.L. Sexual dimorphism in the posterior pituitary response to stress in the rat. Endocrinology (1985) 116: 738-740.
26. Dai W.J., Yao T. Effects of dehydration and salt-loading on hypothalamic vasopressin mRNA level in male and female rats. Brain Res.(1995) 676: 178-182
27. Droste, S.K., de Groote, L., Lightman, S.L., Reul, J.M., Linthorst, A.C. The ultradian and circadian rhythms of free corticosterone in the brain are not affected by gender: an in vivo microdialysis study in Wistar rats. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2009). 21, 132–140.
28. Gala, R.R., Westphal, U. Corticosteroid-binding globulin in the rat: studies on the sex difference. Endocrinology (1965) 77, 841–851.
29. Shirayama Y, Chen AC, Nakagawa S, Russell DS, Duman RS. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor produces antidepressant effects in behavioral models of depression. The Journal of Neuroscience 2002;22:3251–61.
30. Kumar B, Kuhad A, Chopra K. Neuropsychopharmacological effect of sesamol in unpredictable chronic mild stress model of depression: behavioral and biochemical evidences. Psychopharmacology 2011;214:819–28.
31. Ambareesha Kondam et al.,Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters. International Journal of Medical Research and Health SciencesOct-Dec 2012.32. E. Kayalvizhi , B. Vijayalakshmi et al., A study on the role ofantioxidant vitamin e supplementation on behavioral changes induced by immobilization stress in mice. Indian J.L. Sci.2(1) : 27-30, 2012.