IJCRR - 7(20), October, 2015
A DETAILED STUDY OF ABSENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN PATIENTS WITH HOOKWORM INFECTION DIAGNOSED BY DOING UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY
Author: Govindarajalu Ganesan
Objective: Many studies have shown the presence of eosinophilia in hookworm infection. But so far detailed study was not done to know about the absence of eosinophilia in hookworm infection. Hence a detailed study was done to know about the absence of eosinophilia in hookworm infection diagnosed by doing upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our institute.
Methods: A study of 1137 patients who had undergone upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy for a period of four years and eight months from May 2009 to December 2013 was carried out in our institute to know about the absence of eosinophilia in hookworm infection diagnosed by doing upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our institute.
Results: Out of these 1137 patients, 14 patients found to have hookworms in duodenum while doing upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were taken into consideration for our study. Out of these14 patients with hookworms in duodenum, as many as 10 patients with hookworms in duodenum were found to have eosinophilia [71%]. But 4 patients with hookworms in duodenum di nt have any eosinophilia[29%]. Out of these 4 patients without eosinophilia with hookworm infection, 3 patients without eosinophilia
with hookworm infection had anaemia[75%].
Conclusion: Hence, eosinophilia can sometimes be absent in hookworm infection. But 3 out of 4 patients without eosinophilia with hookworm infection had anaemia in our study. Hence anaemia is an important indicator of hookworm infection which is not associated with eosinophilia.
Keywords: Absence of eosinophilia, Presence of anaemia, Hookworm infection, Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy
Govindarajalu Ganesan. A DETAILED STUDY OF ABSENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN PATIENTS WITH HOOKWORM INFECTION DIAGNOSED BY DOING UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY International Journal of Current Research and Review. 7(20), October, 01-05
1. Nutman TB, Ottesen EA, Ieng S, Samuels J, Kimball E, Lutkoski M, Zierdt WS, Gam A, Neva FA. Eosinophilia in Southeast Asian refugees: evaluation at a referral center. J Infect Dis. 1987 Feb;155(2):309-
2. Triteeraprapab S, Nuchprayoon I. Eosinophilia, anemia and parasitism in a rural region of northwest Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1998 Sep;29(3):584-90.
3. Lawn SD1, Grant AD, Wright SG Case reports: acute hookworm infection: an unusual cause of profuse watery diarrhoea in returned travellersTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003 JulAug;97(4):414-5.
4. Heukelbach J, Poggensee G, Winter B, Wilcke T, Kerr-Pontes LR, Feldmeier H Leukocytosis and blood eosinophilia in a polyparasitised population in north-eastern Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jan;100(1):32-40. Epub 2005 Sep 23.
5. Verboeket SO1, Van den Berk GE., Arends JE, van Dam AP, Peringa J, Jansen RR. Hookworm with hypereosinophilia: atypical presentation of a typical disease. J Travel Med. 2013 JulAug;20(4):265-7.
6. Kato T, Kamoi R, Iida M, Kihara T.Endoscopic diagnosis of hookworm disease of the duodenum J Clin Gastroenterol. 1997 Mar;24(2):100-102.
7. Anjum Saeed, Huma Arshad Cheema, Arshad Alvi, Hassan Suleman. Hookworm infestation in children presenting with malena -case seriesPak J Med Res Oct - Dec 2008;47(4) ):98- 100.
8. Wang CH, Lee SC, Huang SS, Chang LC. Hookworm infection in a healthy adult that manifested as severe eosinphilia and diarrhea. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011 Dec;44(6):484-7. Epub 2011 May 23.
9. Yan SL, Chu YC. Hookworm infestation of the small intestine Endoscopy 2007; 39: E162±163.
10. Maxwell C, Hussain R, Nutman TB, Poindexter RW, Little MD, Schad GA, Ottesen EA. The clinical and immunologic responses of normal human volunteers to low dose hookworm (Necator americanus) infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Jul;37(1):126- 34.
11. Kucik CJ, Martin GL, Sortor BV. Common intestinal parasites. Am Fam Physician. 2004Mar 1;69(5) ):1161-8.
12. A Rodríguez, E Pozo, R Fernández, J Amo, T Nozal. Hookworm disease as a cause of iron deficiency anemia in the prison population Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2013; 15: 63-65.
13. Li ZS1, Liao Z, Ye P, Wu RP Dancing hookworm in the small bowel detected by capsule endoscopy: a synthesized video. Endoscopy. 2007 Feb;39 Suppl 1:E97. Epub 2007 Apr 18.
14. McSorley, H. J., and Loukas, A. The immunology of human hookworm infections. Parasite immunology, 2010;32(8), 549- 559.
15. Kabir, Y., Shahjalal, H. M., Saleh, F., and Obaid, W. Dietary pattern, nutritional status, anaemia and anaemia-related knowledge in urban adolescent college girls of Bangladesh. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 2010; 60(8), 633.
16. Ahmed, F., Khan, M. R., Islam, M., Kabir, I., and Fuchs, G. J.. Anaemia and iron deficiency among adolescent schoolgirls in peri-urban Bangladesh. European journal of clinical nutrition, 2000 ;54(9), 678-683.
17. Ahmed F1, Khan MR, Karim R, Taj S, Hyderi T, Faruque MO, Margetts BM, Jackson AA. Serum retinol and biochemical measures of iron status in adolescent schoolgirls in urban Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jun;50(6):346-51.
18. Foo, L. H., Khor, G. L., Tee, E. S., and Prabakaran, D.. Iron status and dietary iron intake of adolescents from a rural community in Sabah, Malaysia. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 2004 ;13(1), 48-55.
19. Chandyo, R. K., Strand, T. A., Ulvik, R. J., Adhikari, R. K., Ulak, M., Dixit, H., and Sommerfelt, H. Prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among healthy women of reproductive age in Bhaktapur, Nepal. European journal of clinical nutrition, 2007;61(2), 262-269.
20. Sarita Modi, Bose Sukhwant, Study of iron status in female medical students, Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research; March 2013: Issue-6, Vol.-2, P. 518-526.
21. Sikosana, P. L., Bhebhe, S., and Katuli, S.. A prevalence survey of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant and lactating women, adult males and pre-school children in Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine, 1998;44(12), 297- 304.
22. WHO. Iron deficiency anaemia: assessment, prevention, and control. a guide for programme managers. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2001. (WHO/NHD/01.3.)
23. Hyder, S. M. Z., Persson, L. Å., Chowdhury, M., Lönnerdal, B. O., and Ekström, E. C.. Anaemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy in rural Bangladesh. Public health nutrition, 2004 ; 7(08), 1065-1070.
24. Meltzer E, Percik R, Shatzkes J, Sidi Y, Schwartz E. Eosinophilia among returning travelers: a practical approachAm J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 May;78(5):702-9.
25. Cedrón-Cheng H, Ortiz C .Hookworm Infestation Diagnosed by Capsule Endoscopy. J Gastroint Dig Syst 2011 S1:003. doi: 10.4172/2161-069X.S1-003.
26. Kuo YC, Chang CW, Chen CJ, Wang TE, Chang WH, Shih SC . Endoscopic Diagnosis of Hookworm Infection That Caused Anemia in an Elderly Person. International Journal of Gerontology. 2010 ; 4(4) : 199-201.
27. Kalli T1, Karamanolis G, Triantafyllou K Hookworm infection detected by capsule endoscopy in a young man with iron deficiency. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Apr;9(4):e33
28. Chen JM1, Zhang XM, Wang LJ, Chen Y, Du Q, Cai JT. Overt gastrointestinal bleeding because of hookworm infection. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Apr;5(4):331-2.
29. Wu KL, Chuah SK, Hsu CC, Chiu KW, Chiu YC, Changchien CS. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Hookworm Disease of the Duodenum: A Case Report. J Intern Med Taiwan 2002;13:27-30.