IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 01, January, 2016
CORRELATION OF DISEASE DURATION, SMOKING PACK YEARS AND FEV1% PREDICTED WITH BAEP PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS OF COPD
Author: Rupali Parlewar, Rubiya Shaikh
COPD is a progressive disease associated with an amplified chronic inflammatory response to noxious particles or gases in the airways and lungs. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Long term exposure to lung irritants that damages the lungs and airways usually is the cause of COPD. Worldwide, the most commonly encountered risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking. The early detection of auditory impairment can be possible by recording of BAEP in patients of COPD. Study includes 100 individual, all males with the age group of 40-60 yrs. were divided in two groups, study group (n=50) and controls (n=50). Study group includes patients of COPD, as per gold criteria and those had a duration of COPD for more than 5 years with stable course of disease. Controls are age & sex matched normal healthy adults. Spirometry was done in patients to confirm the diagnosis of COPD and the severity of airflow limitation. And BAEP recording was done. Latencies of wave I, II, III, IV, V and Interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, I-V of right ear had a statistically non-significant positive correlation with disease duration. There were increase in right ear latencies of wave I, II, III, IV, V and Interpeak latencies of I-III, III-V, I-V along with increase in smoking pack years indicating a positive correlation with p value <0.05 showing a statistical significance. Also statistical significant (p value <0.05) negative correlation between post-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted value and right ear latencies of wave I, II, III, IV, V &Interpeak latencies of I-III, III-V, I-V ; indicating prolongation of latencies of BAEP with reduction in FEV1% predicted. The progressive chronic hypoxemia leads to development of tissue hypoxia and decreases the cerebral perfusion; also it slows the nerve conduction in auditory pathways which causes prolongation of latency. The contents of tobacco smoke in addition to hypoxemia lead to hypoxia. Therefore smoking pack years and decreased FEV1% predicted value definitely have impact on BAEP.
Keywords: BAEP, Latencies, Interpeak latencies, FEV1 % predicted value, Smoking pack years, Disease duration, Hypoxia
Rupali Parlewar, Rubiya Shaikh. CORRELATION OF DISEASE DURATION, SMOKING PACK YEARS AND FEV1% PREDICTED WITH BAEP PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS OF COPD International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 08 Issue 01, January, 09-15
1. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease - Global Strategy forthe Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Updated 2014. P 1-11. available from http.//www.goldcopd.org.
2. DM Mannino. Epidemiology and Evaluation of COPD. Hospital Physician 2001;p 22-31.
3. Edwin K, Siverman, Frank E. Speizer. Risk factors for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Medical clinics of North America. 1996; 80 (3): 501-22.
4. Laniado-Laborín R. Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Parallel epidemics of the 21 century. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009Jan;6(1):209-24.
5. Decramer M, Janssens W, Miravitlles M. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet. 2012; 379 (9823):1341-51.
6. Maarten Fischer, Margreet Scharloo, John Weinman, Ad Kaptein. Illness perceptions and treatment beliefs in pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD, Chapter 2 Respiratory rehabilitation. Psychological management of physical disabilities: A practitioner’s guide. London: Brunner Routledge; 2007. pp. 124-48 available from URL: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl
7. Devereux G. ABC of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Definition, epidemiology and risk factors. BMJ. 2006;332(7550):1142-4.
8. Rennard, Stephen. Clinical management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.2013;2ndedition.New York: Informa Healthcare. p 23.
9. Goldman, Lee. Goldman’s Cecil medicine. 2012; 24th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 537.
10. Kennedy SM, Chambers R, Du W, Dimich-Ward H. Environmental and occupational exposures: do they affect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease differently in women and men? Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007 Dec;4(8):692-4.
11. Kant S, Gupta B. Role of lifestyle in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review. Lung India. 2008 Apr;25(2):95- 101.
12. Stoller J K, Aboussouan L S. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Lancet 2005;365:2225-36.
13. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. National Institute of Health. How Is COPD Diagnosed? p 3. Available from http:// www.nhlbi.nih.gov/Health/Health-topics/copd/
14. Hanania NA, Mullerova H, Locantore NW et al. Determinants of depression in the ECLIPSE chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cohort. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2011; 183:604-11.
15. Weitzenblum E, Chaouat A. Corpulmonale. Chron respire Dis. 2009; 6(3):177-85.
16. Curkendall SM, Lanes S, de Luise C stang MR, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity and cardiovascular outcomes. Eur J Epidemiol. 2006; 21: 803-13.
17. Agusti A, Faner R. Systemic inflammation and comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2012; 9(2): 43-6.
18. Pepys MB, Hirschfield GM. C-reactive protein: a critical update. J Clin Invest 2003; 111 (12): 1805-12.
19. G.L. Snider. Understanding of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the process begins. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003; 163: 1045-46.
20. Pfeifer G, Knuze K, Bruch M, et al. Polyneuropathy associated with chronic hypoxemia: Prevalence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Neurol. 1990; 237: 230-3.
21. Fowler B, Banner J, Pogue J. The slowing of visual processing by hypoxia. Ergonomics 1993; 36: 727-35.
22. Deecke L, Goode RC, Whitehead G et al. Hearing under respiratory stress: latency changes of the human auditory evoked response during hyperventilation, hypoxia, asphyxia and hypercapnia. Aerosp Med 1973; 44: 1106-11.
23. Mishra UK, Kalita J. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2nd ed. Chapter 9.Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier. p 329-46.
24. Charles W Cummings. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. Volume 5, 4th ed. Elsevier Mosby. 2009; 3470-97.
25. Koul PA. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Indian guidelines and the road ahead. Lung India 2013; 30:175-177.
26. Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 152 (5 Pt 2):S77-121.
27. Vijay Kumar, O. P. Tondon. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in tobacco smokers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1996; 40(4): 381-4.
28. Hafez M R, Maabady M H, Aboelkheir O I, Elsheikh R M. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its relation to impairment of visual and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. AAMJ. 2009; 7:3.
29. Nesrien Shalabi, Mohamed Abdel El-Salam, Fatma Abbas. Brain-stem auditory evoked responses in COPD patients. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2012; 61: 313- 21.
30. Gupta PP, Sood S, Atreja A, Agarwal D. Evaluation of brain stem auditory evoked potentials in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Thorac Med. 2008;3(4):128- 34.