IJCRR - 8(2), January, 2016
FOOD AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES THE SEASONALITY OF BIRD COMMUNITY IN TROPICAL FOREST, WESTERN GHATS
Author: T. Nirmala
Seasonal changes of bird communities in relation with food availability were studied in the mixed dry deciduous forest (MDDF) of Western Ghats. Bird population was estimated using variable width line transect method. Vertical distribution of foliage was sampled in each transect. 51 species of plants comprising 255 individuals were marked for phenological studies. Sweep sampling, visual count, mechanical knock down, light trap, aerial trap and pitfall trap were used for the estimation of arthropods. Bird abundance was high during north-east monsoon and low during south-west monsoon. Total number of species during south-west monsoon was 90 (63%). The main winter visitors were Lesser Whitethroat, Dull Green Leaf-warbler, Blyth’s Reedwarbler and Brown Shrike. Species richness was higher during northeast monsoon. Bird Species diversity was found to be greater in MDDF. Winter visitors were high during northeast monsoon. Abundance of birds during different seasons was positively correlated with increasing winter visitor (r = 0.993, p = .001) and this community was largely dominated by insectivore guild. The abundance of arthropod influenced the bird species richness significantly and rainfall showed significant positive correlation with richness of birds. Insect and bird abundance showed significant positive correlation. Increase of Young and mature leaf had no significant correlation with bird abundance. There was a positive significant correlation between Foliage Height Diversity and Bird Species Diversity in all the seasons except summer proving “Higher foliage profile layers harbour more species”.Total abundance of birds was significantly correlated with total insect abundance.
Keywords: MDDF, Food, Seasonality, Bird community, Tropical forest & foliage height diversity
T. Nirmala. FOOD AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES THE SEASONALITY OF BIRD COMMUNITY IN TROPICAL FOREST, WESTERN GHATS International Journal of Current Research and Review. 8(2), January, 74-83
1. Arun, P. R. (2000): Seasonal variations in the abundance of insect groups in a natural moist deciduous forest of Western Ghats. Ph. D. Thesis, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.
2. Balasubramanian, P., S. N. Prasad and K. Kandavel (1998): Role of birds in seed dispersal and natural regeneration of forest plants in Tamil Nadu. Technical report of Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History and Tamil Nadu Forest Department (Research wing). pp. 44.
3. Bibby, C. J., N. D. Burgess and D. A. Hill (1993): Bird census techniques. British Trust for Ornithology and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Academic Press, London. pp. 66-84.
4. Blake, J. G. and B. A. Loiselle (1991): Variation in resource abundance affects capture rates of birds in three lowland habitats in Costa Rica. Auk. 108: 114-130.
5. Daniels, R. J. R. (1996): Landscape ecology and conservation of birds in the Western Ghats, South India. Ibis. 138: 64-69.
6. Erwin T.L and Scott J.C (1980) Seasonal and Size patterns. trophic structure and richness of Coleoptera in the tropical arboreal ecosystem: the fauna of the tree Leuhea seemanniTriana and Planch in the canal Zone of Panama. Coleopterists Bulletin, 34; 305-322.
7. Gaston, A. J. (1978c): Distribution of birds in relation to vegetation in the New Delhi ridge. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 75 (2) : 257- 265.
8. Gokula, V. (1998): Bird communities of the thorn and dry deciduous forests in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. Ph. D. Thesis, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.
9. Gokula, V. and L. Vijayan (1996): Birds of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary. Forktail. 12: 107-117.
10. Greenberg, R. (1981): The abundance and seasonality of forest canopy birds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biotropica. 13: 241-251.
11. Gunnersson, B. (1996): Bird predation and vegetation structure affecting spruce living Arthropods in a temperate forest. Journal of Animal Ecology. 65(3): 389-397.
12. Hilty, S. L. (1980): Flowering and fruiting periodicity in a premontane rain forest in Pacific Colombia. Biotropica. 12: 292-306.
13. Innes, G. J. (1989): Feeding ecology of fruit pigeons in subtropical rainforests of Southeastern Queensland. Aust. Wildl. Res. 16: 365-394.
14. Ishii, M. (1993): Transect count of butterflies. In Decline and conservation of butterflies in Japan 11: 91-101.
15. Jayson, E. A., and D. N. Mathew (2000): Seasonal changes of tropical forest birds in the southern western ghats J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 97 (1): 52- 61.
16. Johnsingh, A. J. T., and J. Joshua (1994): Avifauna in three vegetation types on Mundanthurai Plateau, South India. J. Tropical Ecology. 10: 323-335.
17. Johnsingh, A. J. T., N. H. Martin., J. Balasingh., and V. Chelladurai (1987): Vegetation and avifauna in a thorn scrub habitat in South India. Tropical Ecology. 28: 22-34.
18. Karr, J. R. (1971): Structure of avian communities in selected Panama and Illinois habitats. Ecol. Monogr. 41: 207-233.
19. Karr, J. R. (1976b): Seasonality, resource availability and community diversity in tropical bird communities. American Naturalist. 110: 973-994.
20. Karr, J. R., M. Dionne and I. J. Schlosser (1992): Bottom-up versus top-down regulation of Vertebrate populations: Lessons from birds and fish. In. Effects of resource distribution on animal plant interactions. Academic press Inc. pp. 243-286.
21. Katti, M. and J. Price (1996): Effects of climate on palaearctic warblers over-wintering in India. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 93(1): 411-427.
22. Koen, J. H. (1992): Medium-term fluctuations of birds and their potential food resources in the Knysna forest. Ostrich. 63: 21-30.
23. Levey, D. J. (1988): Spatial and temporal variation in Costa Rican fruit and fruit-eating bird abundance. Ecol. Monogr. 58: 251-269.
24. Loiselle, B. A. (1988): Bird abundance and seasonality in Costa Rican lowland forest canopy. Condor. 90: 716-722.
25. MacArthur, R. H. and H. S. Horn (1969): Foliage profile by vertical measurements. Ecology. 50: 802-804.
26. MacArthur, R. H. and J. W. MacArthur (1961): On bird species diversity. Ecology. 42: 594-598.
27. Mathew, G. (1990): Studies on the Lepidoptera fauna. In. Ecological studies and long-term monitoring of the biological processes in the Silent Valley National Park. Report submitted to Ministry of Environment, Govt. of India, Kerala forest Research Institute. pp. 239.
28. Murali, K. S. and R. Sukumar (1993): Leaf flushing phenology and herbivori in a tropical dry deciduous forest, Southern India. Oecologia. 94: 114-119.
29. Natuhara, Y., C. Imai, M. Ishii, Y. Sakuratani and S. Tanaka (1996): Reliability of transect count method for monitoring butterfly communities;1. Repeated counts in an urban park. Japaneese Journal of Environmental Entomology and Zoology. 8(1): 13-22.
30. Nestel, D., F. Dicksschen and A. Altieri (1994): Seasonal and spatial population loads of a tropical insect: The case of the coffee leaf miner in Mexico. Ecological Entomology. 19(2): 159- 167.
31. Nirmala, T. and L. Vijayan (2000): Ecology of the Yellow-eyed Babbler. Proc. of Second Pan Asian Ornithological Congress. 27: 2.
32. Norusis, M. J. (1994): SPSS Inc. SPSS release 6.0 for Unisys 6000, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
33. Pollard, E. (1977): A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biological conservation. 12: 115-131.
34. Pollard, E. and T. J. Yates (1993): Monitoring butterflies for Ecology and Conservation. Chaman and Hall, London. pp. 274.
35. Poulin, B., G. Lefebvre and R. McNeil (1994): Characteristics of feeding guilds and variation in diets of birds species of three adjacent tropical sites. Biotropica. 26: 187-197.
36. Pramod, P. (1995): Ecological studies of Bird communities of Silent Valley and neighbouring forests. Ph. D. Thesis submitted to the university of Calicut, Kerala.
37. Price, P. W. , I. R. Diniz, H. C. Moraise and E. S. A. Marques (1995): The abundance of insect herbivore species in the tropics: the high richness of rare species. Biotropica. 27(4): 468-478.
38. Price, T. D (1979): The seasonality and occurrence of birds in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 76 (3): 379 - 422.
39. Pyke, G. H. (1985): Seasonal patterns of abundance of insectivorous birds and flying insects. Emu. 85: 34-39.
40. Raman, T. R. S. (1999): Flocking and altitudinal movements of the Black Bulbul Hypsipetes madagascariensis in the southern western ghats, India. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 96(2): 320-321.
41. Richards, O. W. and R. G. Davies (1977): Imm’s General Text Book of Entomology, 10th edition; vol 2,Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall, London pp. 933.
42. Southwood, T. R. E. (1971): Ecological methods with particular reference to insect populations. English Language Book Society. pp.524.
43. Sparks, T. H. and T. Parish (1995): Factors affecting the abundance of butterflies in the field boundaries in Swaresey fens. Cambridge, U. K. Biological conservation. 73(3): 221.
44. Sundaramoorthy, T. (1991): Ecology of terrestrial birds inKeoladeo National Park, Bharatpur. Ph. D. Thesis, Bombay University, Bombay.
45. Vijayan, L. (1984): Comparative biology of Drongos (Family: Dicruridae, Class: Aves) with special reference to ecological Isolation. Ph. D. Thesis, Bombay University, Bombay.
46. Vijayan, L., S. N. Prasad, P. Balasubramanian V. Gokula, N.K. Ramachandran, D. Stephen and M. V. Mahajan (1999): Impact of human interference on the plant and bird communities in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Final report, SACON.
47. Vijayan, L., V. Gokula and S. N. Prasad (2000): A study of the Population and habitat of the Rufous-breasted Laughing Thrush Garrulax cachinnans. Project report, SACON. pp. 26.
48. Woinarski J. C. Z. and J. M. Cullen (1984): Distribution of invertebrates on foliage in forests of south-eastern, Australia. Aust. J. Ecol. 9: 207-232.