IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 02, January, 2016
CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE NEXUS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE AGONIZING REALITY FOR SMALLHOLDER FARMERS
Author: George Kanyama Phiiri, Anthony Egeru, Adipala Ekwamu
Climate change is one of the potent challenges facing smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa in the recent past owing to the pattern and magnitude with which it presents the extreme events such as floods and drought. This review finds a general consensus that climate change is already happening in the region and the projections in the early, mid and end century all point to a much warmer future with highly variable rainfall across the region. These patterns in climate parameters is expected to trigger a negative trend in agricultural production for most food and cash crops in SSA. However, a few locations particularly the highland locations over eastern Africa will be expected to become more suitable for the production of some cereals such as maize leading to increased production. Overall, at present and in the future unless strategic interventions are judiciously implemented smallholder farmers in SSA produce below the optimal levels with considerable yield gaps in nearly all the cereals, legumes and tubers grown. Efforts to unlock the potential of smallholder farmers under the current and projected climate change situation ought to focus on strategic and systemic implementation of; options that yield multiple benefits such as climate smart agriculture, investing in capacity building at both technical and farmer level, creating multiple opportunities for investment capital including availing smallholders with credit as well as mobilizing private financing. Further, investing at the development of functional early and early warning systems, investing in agricultural value chains through a strategic focus on agribusinesses and gaining and strengthening political commitment through a focus on policy and governance in agricultural frameworks and processes. Finally, a no-one fit for all paradigm ought to be upheld at all time while dealing with smallholder farmers in SSA owing to the dynamic and complex farming systems under which they operate.
Keywords: Adaptation, Capacity, Institutions, Resilience, RUFORUM, Yield gap
George Kanyama Phiiri, Anthony Egeru, Adipala Ekwamu. CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE NEXUS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE AGONIZING REALITY FOR SMALLHOLDER FARMERS International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 08 Issue 02, January, 57-64
1. Adhikari, U., Nejadhashemi, A. P., and Woznicki, S. A. (2015). Climate change and eastern Africa: a review of impact on major crops. Food and Energy Security, 4(2), 110-132.
2. Afenyo, S. J. (2015). A review of food security implications of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Intelligence'AfricaEnviro.Availablefrom:http://www.consultancyafrica.com/index.php option=com_contentandview=articleandid=993:a-review-of-food-security-implications-of-climate-change-in-subsaharan-africa-andcatid=92:enviro-africaandItemid=380
3. Agrawal, A. (2010). Local institutions and adaptation to climate change. Social dimensions of climate change: Equity and vul- nerability in a warming world, 173-198.
4. Alkire, S., Housseini, B., and Series, O. S. (2014). Multidimensional Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Levels and Trends. OPHI Working Paper. Vol. 81, 3.
5. Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa AGRA (2013). The Africa Agriculture Status Report 2013: Focus on Staple Crops. Nairobi, Kenya. Available from: http://agra-alliance.org/ourresults/agra-status-reports/
6. Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa AGRA (2014). Africa Agriculture Status Report 2014: Climate Change and Smallholder Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nairobi, Kenya. Issue No. 2. Available from: https://ccafs.cgiar.org/publications/africa-agriculture-status-report-2014-climate-change-and-smallholderagriculture-sub
7. Barasa, B., Kakembo, V., Mugaga, F., and Egeru, A. (2013). Comparison of extreme weather events and streamflow from drought indices and a hydrological model in River Malaba, Eastern Uganda. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 70(6), 940-951.
8. Boko M et al 2007 Africa Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) ed ML Parry, O F Canziani, J P Palutikof, P J van der Linden and C E Hanson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp 433-67.
9. Burton, I., Diringer, E., and Smith, J. (2006). Adaptation to Climate Change: International Policy Options. PEW Center on Global Climate Change. Available from: http://www.c2es.org/ docUploads/PEW_Adaptation.pdf
10. Calzadilla, A., Zhu, T., Rehdanz, K., Tol, R. S., and Ringler, C. (2013). Economywide impacts of climate change on agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics, 93, 150-165.
11. Chen, H., Githeko, A.K., Zhou, G., Githure, J.I., Yan, G. (2006). New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission. Malar J 5:17. doi:10. 1186/1475-2875-5-17
12. Collier, P., Conway, G., and Venables, T. (2008). Climate change and Africa. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 24(2), 337-353.
13. Connolly-Boutin, L., and Smit, B. (2015). Climate change, food security, and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. Regional Environmental Change, 1-15.
14. Conway, G. (2009). The science of climate change in Africa: Impacts and adaptation’, Imperial College London, Grantham Institute for climate change, Discussion Paper No. 1, 24. London, October 2009.
15. Dhamankar, M., Mapfumo, P., Kleijn, W. (2014). Strategic partnership for the Fertile Grounds Initiative. A rapid appraisal of networks, organizations, programmes, projects and private sector engagement in Soil Fertility Initiatives in Sub Saharan Africa. KIT. Available from: http://knowledge4food.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/150107_KIT-report-soil-fertility-study. pdf
16. Drechsel, P., Kunze, D., and De Vries, F. P. (2001). Soil nutrient depletion and population growth in sub-Saharan Africa: a Malthusian nexus. Population and Environment, 22(4), 411-423.
17. Egeru, A. (2014). Assessment of forage dynamics under variable climate in Karamoja sub-region of Uganda. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi. Available from: http://erepository.uonbi. ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/75781/Egeru_Assessment20 of20forage20dynamics20under20variable20climate20in20Karamoja20sub-region.pdfsequence=1
18. Egeru, A., Nampala, P., Massa-Makuma, H., Osiru, M., and Adipala, E. (2015). Innovating for skills enhancement in agricultural sciences in Africa: the centrality of field attachment programmes. Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM).
19. Egeru, A., Osaliya, R., MacOpiyo, L., Mburu, J., Wasonga, O., Barasa, B., Aleper D., and Majaliwa Mwanjalolo, G. J. (2014). Assessing the spatio-temporal climate variability in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region in north-eastern Uganda. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 71(4), 490-50
20. Humanitarian and Development Network (2010). Emerging Challenges for Early Warning Systems in context of Climate Change and Urbanization. A Joint Report Prepared by DKKV Platform for Promotion of Early Warning/ UNISDR with Inputs from Partner Organizations and Coordinated by Humanitarian and Development Network. Switzerland. Available from: http:// www.unisdr.org/files/15689_ewsincontextofccandurbanization. pdf
21. IFAD, (2012). Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (“ASAP”). IFAD. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/adaptation-for-smallholder-agriculture-programme-asap
22. Ifejika Speranza, C. (2010). Resilient Adaptation to Climate Change in African Agriculture, 311 p., Bonn 2010. ISBN 978-3- 88985-489-6.
23. Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC (2007). ‘Fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Africa 2007’, 2007, http://www.ipcc.ch
24. ISDR (2008). 3rd African drought adaptation forum report, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 September 2008. ITU, 2008. Ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs). ITU-T’s Technology Watch Briefing Report series, No. 4 (February). Available from: www.itu. Int/dms_pub/itu-t/oth/23/T230100000 40001PDFE.pdf.
25. Kabat, P., Ludwig, F., van der Valk, M., and van Schaik, H. (Eds.). (2012). Climate change adaptation in the water sector. Routledge.
26. Kahare, P. (2014). Climate Change and Africa: new report outlines continent’s hotspots. African Arguments. Available from: http://africanarguments.org/2014/06/03/climate-change-andafrica-new-report-outlines-continents-hotspots-by-peter-kahare/
27. Kibwika, P., Nassuna-Musoke, M., Birungi-Kyazze, F., SSeguya, H., and Akishule, D. (2013). Status of Human Resource Capacity for Agricultural Innovation in ASARECA National Agricultural Research Systems. ASARECA, Entebbe, Uganda. Available from: http://asareca.org/~asareca/publication/statushuman-resource-capacity-agricultural-innovation-asareca-national-agricultural
28. Masinde, M., and Bagula, A. (2011). ITIKI: bridge between African indigenous knowledge and modern science of drought prediction. Knowledge Management for Development Journal, 7(3), 274-290.
29. Masters, L., and Duff, L. (2011). Overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation implementation in Southern Africa. African Books Collective.
30. Mignouna, H. D., Abang, M. M., Omanya, G., Nang’Ayo, F., Bokanga, M., Boadi, R., Muchiri, N and Terry, E. (2008). Delivery of Agricultural Technology to Resource poor Farmers in Africa. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136(1), 369-376.
31. Molua, E. L., Benhin, J., Kabubo-Mariara, J., Ouedraogo, M., and El-Marsafawy, S. (2010). Global climate change and vulnerability of African agriculture: implications for resilience and sustained productive capacity. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 49(3), 185-214.
32. Morton, J. F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 104(50), 19680-19685.
33. Munang, R., and Andrews, J. (2014). Despite climate change, Africa can feed Africa. Africa Renewal, Special Edition on Agriculture 2014, 6. Available from: http://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/special-edition-agriculture-2014-despiteclimate-change-africa-can-feed-africa
34. Mutegi, J., and Zingore, S. (2014). Integrated Soil Fertility Management Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. In 20th World Congress of Soil Science pp. 635-635.
35. Nandozi, C.S., Majaliwa, J.G.M. ,Omondi, P., Komutunga, E., Aribo, L., Isubikalu, P., Tenywa, M.M., Massa-Makuma, H. (2012). Regional climate model performance and prediction of seasonal rainfall and surface temperature of Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, Issue Supplement s2 20(2):213 - 225.
36. Niang I, Ruppel OC, Abdrabo MA, Essel A, Lennard C, Padgham J, Urquhart P (2014) Africa. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, EbiKL,Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1199-1265
37. O’Loughlin, J., Linke, A. M., and Witmer, F. D. (2014). Effects of temperature and precipitation variability on the risk of violence in sub-Saharan Africa, 1980-2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(47), 16712-16717.
38. Ondiege, P., Moyo, J. M., and Verdier-Chouchane, A. U. D. R. E. Y. (2013). Developing Africa’s Infrastructure for Enhanced Competitiveness. In World Economic Forum (eds), The Africa Competitiveness Report.
39. Quiroz, R., Harahagazwe, D., Condori, B., Barreda, C., de Mendiburu, F., Amele, A., Anthony, D., Atieno, E., Bararyenya, A., Byarugaba, A.A., Demo, P., Guerrero, J., Kowalski, B., Anthony Kude, D., Lung’aho, C., Mares, V., Mbiri, D., Mulugeta, G., Nasona, B., Ngugi, A., Njeru, J., Ochieng, B., Onditi, J., Parker, M., Randrianaivoarivony, J.M., Schulte-Geldermann, E., Tankou, C.M., Woldegiorgis, G., and Worku, A. (2014). Potato yield gap analysis in SSA through participatory modeling: Optimizing the value of historical breeding trial data. CIP Working Paper. Available from: http:///humidtropics.cgiar.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2014/04/Potato-Yield-Gap-Analysis.pdf
40. Rajaonarison, H. M. (2014). Food and human security in SubSaharan Africa. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 20, 377-385.
41. Reich, P.F., Numben, S.T., Almaraz, R., and Eswaran, H. (2001) Land resources stresses and desertification in Africa. Agro-Science 2(2):1-10. doi:10.4314/as.v2i2.1484
42. Ringler, C., Zhu, T., Cai, X., Koo, J., and Wang, D. (2010). Climate change impacts on food security in sub-Saharan Africa. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper, 1042. Available from: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/6983
43. Sanchez, P.A., Palm, C.A,, Buol, S.W. (2003). Fertility capability soil classification: A tool to help assess soil quality in the tropics. Geoderma, 114, 157-185.
44. Schaffnit-Chatterjee, C. (2014). Agricultural value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: From a development challenge to a business opportunity. Deutsche Bank AG. Available from: https://www.dbresearch.com/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD/ PROD0000000000333152/Agricultural+value+chains+in+SubSaharan+Africa3A+F.PDF
45. Schlenker, W., and Lobell, D. B. (2010). Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, 5(1), 014010.
46. Schmidhuber, J., and Tubiello, F. N. (2007). Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(50), 19703-19708.
47. Shiferaw, B., Tesfaye, K., Kassie, M., Abate, T., Prasanna, B. M., and Menkir, A. (2014). Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options. Weather and Climate Extremes, 3, 67-79.
48. Songok CK, Kipkorir EC, Mugalavai EM (2011) Integration of indigenous knowledge systems into climate change adaptation and enhancing food security in Nandi and Keiyo districts, Kenya. In: Filho WL (ed) Experiences of climate change adaptation in Africa. Springer, Hamburg, pp 69-95.
49. Steenwerth, K. L. Hodson, A. K., Bloom, A. J., Carter, M. R., Cattaneo, A., Chartres, C. J.,..and Jackson, L. E. (2014). Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda:: scientific basis for action. Agriculture and Food Security, 3(1), 11.
50. Thomas, T., and Rosegrant, M. (2015). Climate change impact on key crops in Africa: Using crop models and general equilibrium models to bound the prediction, In: Climate change and food systems: global assessments and implications for food security and trade, Aziz Elbehri (editor). Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, 2015.
51. Tully, K., Sullivan, C., Weil, R., and Sanchez, P. (2015). The State of Soil Segradation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Baselines, Trajectories, and Solutions. Sustainability, 7(6), 6523-6552.
52. Vanlauwe, B., Descheemaeker, K., Giller, K. E., Huising, J., Merckx, R., Nziguheba, G., wEND... and Zingore, S. (2014). Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation. Soil Discuss, 1, 1239-1286.
53. Villanueva, P. S., and Hiraldo, R. (2011). Climate Change and Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: New Concerns, Old Arguments. Occasional Paper 003. Future Agricultures. Available from: http://www.future-agricultures.org/publications/researchand-analysis/occasional-papers/1463-climate-change-and-agriculture-in-sub-saharan-africa-new-concerns-old-arguments/file
54. Ward, P. S., Florax, R. J., and Flores-Lagunes, A. (2014). Climate change and agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: a spatial sample selection model. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 41(2), 199-226.
55. Williams, A. P., and Funk, C. (2011). A westward extension of the warm pool leads to a westward extension of the Walker circulation, drying eastern Africa. Climate Dynamics, 37(11-12), 2417-2435.
56. Ziervogel, G., Bharwani, S., and Downing, T. E. (2006). Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. Natural Resources Forum 30 (2006) 294-305.