IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 02, January, 2016
EFFECTS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF CHILDREN: FINDINGS FROM A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN CHANDRAPUR, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA
Author: Uddhao Gawande, Suhas Kadam, Abhijit Khanvilkar, Gurudatt Potdar, Hrushikesh Salvitthal
Background: Outdoor air pollution and continuous exposure to ambient air pollutants like particulate matter are among the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes all over the world. This association between air pollution and the impairment of respiratory functions is evident from number of epidemiological studies. Health risk from particulate pollution is especially high for some risk groups such as children and elderly persons, and those with diseases of lungs. However, there are still many issues to be clarified before we know the real causal relationship between air pollution and health effects. Specific air pollutants have not been identified as causes of health effects. This specific study has been conducted with an objective to evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms and diseases of children, in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra state in India. Methods: Comparative cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken in the Chandrapur district with two geographical locations – study and control between August-November 2013. The data included primary data collection from school children to assess the lung function among children, flow meters were used and readings were recorded.2000 school children were selected in this study. Epidemiological information was collected from them by administering structured tool (2000) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate was measured through use of Flow Meter (2000).Data was analysed using frequency tables, crosstab analysis and chi-square test to show significance. Results: Statistically significant difference is observed in prevalence of dry cough, night cough and sneezing symptoms between study and control groups. Statistically significant difference is observed in prevalence of dry cough, night cough and sneezing between less than or equal to 5 km (5 km) distance from the industry. Within study group rhinitis showed statistically significant difference for distance less than 5Km and more than 5Km between home and industry by chi square test. Conclusion: There is a significant effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms of school-aged students with high prevalence of the symptoms in the study area which is the industrial area than the control area. Presence of multiple industries in or near the village is more harmful than the single industry. Additionally, it also shows that the presence of steel, cement and paper industry in or near a village has caused more ill-effects as compared to coal and thermal industry.
Keywords: Air pollution, Respiratory health, Disease, School children, Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India
Uddhao Gawande, Suhas Kadam, Abhijit Khanvilkar, Gurudatt Potdar, Hrushikesh Salvitthal. EFFECTS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF CHILDREN: FINDINGS FROM A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN CHANDRAPUR, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 08 Issue 02, January, 36-45
1. Gilliland FD, McConnell R, Peters J, Gong H. A theoretical basis for investigating ambient air pollution and children’s respiratory health. Environ Health Perspect [Internet]. 1999 Jun 1;107(Suppl 3):403-7. Available from: http://www.ehponline. org/ambra-doi-resolver/10.1289/ehp.99107s3403
2. Chen Z, Salam MT, Eckel SP, Breton C V, Gilliland FD. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children’s Health Study. J Thorac Dis. 2015;7(1):46-58.
3. Ulrich MMW, Alink GM, Kumarathasan P, Vincent R, Boere a JF, Cassee FR. Health effects and time course of particulate matter on the cardiopulmonary system in rats with lung inflammation. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Oct 12;65(20):1571-95.
4. Ministry of Micro S and ME. Brief Industrial Profile of Chandrapur District.
5. Western Coalfields Limited. An overview of industries in the state of Maharashtra.
6. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. Environmental Status and Action Plan for Control of Pollution at Chandrapur [Internet]. Available from: http://mpcb.gov.in/images/pdf/action plan chandrapur1.pdf
7. The Times of India. Chanda fourth most polluted city in India. :1-2. Available from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/nagpur/Chanda-fourth-most-polluted-city-in-India/articleshow/5392934.cmsreferral=PM
8. Central Pollution Control Board. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment of Industrial Clusters [Internet]. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests; 2009. 1-28 p. Available from: http://cpcb.nic.in/divisionsofheadoffice/ess/NewItem_152_Final-Book_2.pdf
9. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. CEPI Report. 2010.
10. Natural Resources Defense Council. Our children at risk. 1998;(June 1993):1-13.
11. Sharma AK, Siddiqui KA. Assessment of Air Quality for an Open Cast Coal Mining Area. Indian J Sci Res. 2010;1(2):47- 55.
12. Atimtay A, Chaudhary T. Air Pollution Due to Nox Emissions in an Iron-Steel Industry Region in South-Eastern Turkey and Emission Reduction Strategies. Middle East Tech Univ Environ Eng Dep 06531 Ankara [Internet]. Available from: http://www. umad.de/infos/cleanair13/pdf/full_152.pdf
13. Central Pollution Control Board. Comprehensive Industry Document on Pulse, Wheat, Rice Mills. 2008; (July):108. Available from: http://cpcb.nic.in/upload/NewItems/NewItem_132_ coind-pulsewheatricemills.pdf
14. Chowgule R V, Shetye VM, Parmar JR. Lung function tests in normal Indian children. Indian Pediatr. 1995; 32(2):185-91.
15. Jindal SK, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Agarwal R, Kumar R, Kaur T, et al. Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in adults (INSEARCH). Int JTuberc Lung Dis [Internet]. 2012 Sep 1;16(9):1270-7. Available from: http://icmr.nic.in/final/INSEARCH_Full_Report.pdf
16. World Health Organization. Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. 2014; 313:7. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/#
18. Radomski A, Jurasz P, Alonso-Escolano D, Drews M, Morandi M, Malinski T, et al. Nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation and vascular thrombosis. Br J Pharmacol [Internet]. 2005 Nov; 146(6):882-93. Available from: http://doi.wiley. Com/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706386
19. Seaton a, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Godden D. Particulate air pollution and acute health effects. Lancet [Internet]. 1995 Jan; 345(8943):176-8. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140673695901736
20. Nemmar A, Hoylaerts MF, Hoet PHM, Nemery B. Possible mechanisms of the cardiovascular effects of inhaled particles: Systemic translocation and prothrombotic effects. Toxicology Letters [Internet]. 2004. p. 243-53. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378427403005034
21. Government of India. State of Environment Report [Internet]. 2009. Available from: http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/home/home-SoE-Report-2009.pdf