IJCRR - 8(7), April, 2016
SIMULATING THE ACTIVITY OF VINCRISTIN (AN ANTICANCEROUS DRUG) WITH BIOGENIC NANOPARTICLES USING VIGNA RADIATASEEDS
Author: Himakshi Bhati Kushwaha, C. P. Malik
Background: The present study reports the inhibitory effects of biogenic nanoparticles synthesized from Tridax procumbens stem (fresh and powder) aqueous extract on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. These synthesized nanoparticles were well characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy; SEM; XRD and FTIR analysis. The constituents in the extract were also well characterized using FTIR analysis. The cytotoxic propertiesof the biogenic nanoparticles were then compared with the individual aqueous extract and vincristin (an anti-cancerous drug- used for ease in cancer.). The inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth was found to be dose-dependent and was suitable to quantify the bioactivity of biogenic nanoparticles preparations. Objective: The present investigation, emphasizes on simulating the activity of the synthesized biogenic nanoparticles from T. procumbens withan anticancerous drug –vincristine using in vitro bioassay system (Kumar and Singhal, 2009). The growth promotion and/or retardation activity of crude plant extractis also described. Method:After reviewing number of peer-reviewed published articles the safest and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of the nanoparticles had been adopted. Biogenic nanoparticles were later well characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analysis. Their activity against anticancerous drug – vincristine, was tested using an in vitro bioassay on Vigna radiata. Results: Present study brings out the role of biogenic nanoparticles in inhibiting seed germination which was dose dependent. With vincristin comparable inhibition was observed. The plant extract, bionanoparticles and vincristin, promoted water imbibitions by the seeds though their higher concentrations inhibited this process. Reduction in water imbibitions, caused by these failed to trigger processes leading to reduced seed germination and radicle decay. The growth retardation following these treatments could be attributed to the inhibition of cell division and radicle protrusion brought about by osmotic stress (de Castro et al., 2000). From these observations it could be safely inferred that the plant extracts exhibited effective inhibitory activity, though biogenic nanoparticles and vincristin were most effective at 1.0 and 2.0 mg ml-1. Conclusion: Biogenic nanoparticles are eco-friendly, cost effective, and rapidly synthesized, and hence are more acceptable than the anti-cancerous drugs available in the market. The latter have side effects, cost issues, toxic chemicals involved in their synthesis, storage complexities, etc. The present study opens new avenue for medical sciences where plant extract synthesized nanoparticles via “green route” can be the safer alternative than synthetic anti-cancerous products.
Keywords: Seed germination, Bioactivity, Seedling growth, Tridax procumbens, Vigna radiata, Vincristin, UV-visible, SEM, XRD, FTIR
Himakshi Bhati Kushwaha, C. P. Malik. SIMULATING THE ACTIVITY OF VINCRISTIN (AN ANTICANCEROUS DRUG) WITH BIOGENIC NANOPARTICLES USING VIGNA RADIATASEEDS International Journal of Current Research and Review. 8(7), April, 13-22
1. Aruoma,OI. and Cuppett, SL. 1997. Antioxidant methodology In vivo and In vitro concepts. AOCS press, Champaign, Illinois, pp.41-172.
2. Chandran,PS., Chaudhary, M., Pasricha, R., Ahmad, A. and Sastry, M. 2006. Synthesis of gold triangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract. Biotechnol Prog. 27: 577-583.
3. de Castro, RD., Lammeren,AM., Groot,SPC., Bino,RJ. and Hilhorst,WM. 2000. Cell division and subsequent radicle protrusion in tomato seeds are inhibited by osmotic stress but DNA synthesis and formation of microtubular cytoskeleton are not. Plant Physiology. 122: 327-336.
4. Formica,JV. and Regelson, W. 1995. Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids.Fd Chem. Toxic.33(12):1061-1080.
5. Kumar, VL and Singhal, A. 2009. Germinating seeds of the mung bean, Vigna radiata (Fabaceae), as a model for the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic effects of drugs. Biocell. 33: 19–24.
6. Kushwaha, HB. and Malik, CP. 2013Biopotential of Verbesina encelioides (Stem and Leaf Powder) in Silver Nanoparticles Fabrication. Turk Jour of Biol.DOI:10.3906/biy-1212-7.
7. Kushwaha, HB. and Malik, CP. 2012. Biomimeting of Silver Nanoparticles from the Dried Extract of Tridax procumbens L. (Stem and Leaf). Jour Pl Sci Res. 28(2): 95-103.
8. Kushwaha, HB. and Malik, CP. 2012a. Nanofabrication of Silver Nanoparticles from the Stem and Leaf Extract of Verbesina encelioides.Natl Acad Sci Lett.35: 555-563.
9. Li, S., Shen, Y., Xie, A., Yu, X., Qui, L., Zhang, L and Zhang, Q. 2007. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Capsicum annuum L. extract. Green Chem.9: 852-858.
10. Malik, CP., Garg,P., Singh, Y. and Grover, S. 2012. Medical uses, chemical constituents and micro-propagation of the three potential medicinal.International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research. 2(3): 57-76.
11. Murthy, TP., Francis, CR., Singh, HG and Naik, NC. 2011. An assay for screening anti-mitotic activity of herbal extracts.Current Science. 100(9):1399 – 1404.
12. Olenin, A., Romanovskaya,G., Krutyakov,Y., Lisichkin,G and Zuev,V. Sensitized fluorescence of silver nanoparticles in the presence of Pyrene. Doklady Chem.419: 91-94.
13. Orcutt,DM. and Nelson, ET. 1996. The Physiology of Plants Under Stress: Soil and Biotic Factors”, Vol. 2, Canada, Wiley Publications, 1996.
14. Rose,WM., Creighton,WM., Stewart DHPJ. et al. 1982. In Vivo Effects of Vitamin E on Cataractogenesis in Diabetic Rats.Can. Jour. Ophthal. 17: 61-66.
15. Satyavani,K., Ramanathan, T and Gurudeeban, S. 2011. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using stem derived callus extract of bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis).Digest Jour of Nanomat andBios. 6: 1019-1024.
16. Savithramma, N., Rao, ML and Devi,PS. 2011. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark of Boswellia ovalofoliolata Bal. and Henry and Shorea tumbuggaia Roxb. Jour of Biol Sci. DOI: 10.3923/ jbs.2011.
17. Skehan,P., et al. 1990. New colorimetric cytotoxicity assay for anticancer- drug screening. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82:1107– 1112.
18. Srivastava, K., Raghava, N and Raghava, SRP. 2005. Brassinosteriods stimulate seed germination parameters and chlorophyll content in mung bean. Indian Jour. Sci. Res.2(3): 89-92.
19. Tominagaa,H., Ishiyama,M., Ohseto,F., Sasamoto,K., Hamamoto,T., Suzukic,K. and Watanabec, M. 1999. A watersoluble tetrazolium salt useful for colorimetric cell viability assay.Anal. Commun. 36:47–50.
20. Umashankari,J., Inbakandan,D., Ajithkumar,TT. and Balasub,T. 2012. Mangrove plant, Rhizophora mucronata (Lamk, 1804) mediated one pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens.Saline Systems. 8:11.