IJCRR - 5(1), January, 2013
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF FRESH GARLIC EXTRACT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH CONVENTIONAL ANTIMICROBIALS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES
Author: Vishal Gaekwad, N.A. Trivedi
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common etiological agent, for causation of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. At the same time it is one of the bacterial strains account for wide range of antimicrobial resistance. Garlic (allium sativum) possesses antimicrobial activity against wide variety of organisms. In the present study antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic extract (FGE) was assessed by well diffusion as well as tube dilution method and effects of combination of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin with FGE were studied by well diffusion method against the clinical isolates of E Coli spp. FGE per se produced dose dependent increase in zone of inhibition. In the combination study, addition of FGE with various concentrations of ampicillin (2.5-20mcg/ml) resulted in marked further increase in zone of inhibition than that produced by ampicillin per se at the respective concentration. While combining different concentrations of ciprofloxacin with FGE, ciprofloxacin 1.25mcg/ml with 20mg/ml and 40mg/ml of FGE produced synergistic effect. This study suggests possibility of concurrent use of antimicrobial drugs and FGE in treating infections caused E. coli spp. Further detailed pharmacokinetic and in vivo studies of garlic are required.
Keywords: Garlic; Ampicillin; Ciprofloxacin; Antimicrobial activity; E Coli
Vishal Gaekwad, N.A. Trivedi. IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF FRESH GARLIC EXTRACT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH CONVENTIONAL ANTIMICROBIALS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES International Journal of Current Research and Review. 5(1), January, 106-114
1. WHO. Antimicrobial Resistance. February 2011; Available from: ttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs 194/en/.
2. Bruton L, Chabner B, Knollmann B. Goodman and Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics2011.
3. Fauci As, Kasper DL, Longo DL, Braunwald E, Hauser s, Jameson L, et al. Harrison's Principles of internal medicine. seventeenth edition ed2008.
4. WHO. Community-Based Surveillance of Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Resource-Constrained Settings Report on five pilot projects2009.
5. Organization WH. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants 1999.
6. B.A. Iwalokun AO, 2 D.O. Ogbolu,3 S.B. Bamiro,4 and J. Jimi-Omojola2. In Vitro Antimicrobial Properties of Aqueous Garlic Extract Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Candida Species from Nigeria. Journal of medicinal food. 2004;7(3).
7. Daka D, Awole M. Assessment of the Antibacterial Effect of Crude Preparation of Garlic (Allium Sativum) on Diarrhea Causing Bacteria: An In Vitro, study. asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;1(1):12-4.
8. Durairaj S, Srinivasan S, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. In vitro Antibacterial Activity and Stability of Garlic Extract at Different pH and Temperature. Electronic Journal of Biology. 2009;5(1):5- 10.
9. Goncagul G, Ayaz E. Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Traditional Medicine. Journal of animal and Veterinary Advances. 2010;9(1).
10. Yin M-C, Chang H-C, Tsao S-M. Inhibitory Effects of Aqueous Garlic Extract, Garlic Oil and Four Diallyl Sulphides against Four Enteric Pathogens. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2002;10(2):120-6.
11. Ahmad I, Aqil F. In vitro efficacy of bioactive extracts of 15 medicinal plants against ESbL-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria. Microbiological Research. 2007;162 264-75.
12. Palaksha M, N., Ahmed M, Das S. Antibacterial activity of garlic extract on streptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli solely and in synergism witj streptomycin. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine. july 2010;1(1).
13. Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2011;47(4):465-73.
14. Mackie, Cartney M. Mackie and Mc Cartney Practical Medical Microbiology. 14th ed. Collee JG, Marmion B, P., Fraser A, G., Simmons A, editors: Churchil livingstone; 2007.
15. Scott B. Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology. 12th ed. Forbes B, A., Daniel FS, weissfeld A, s., editors: Mosby elsevier; 2007.
16. Adwan G, Mhanna M. Synergistic Effects of Plant Extracts and Antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Clinical Specimens. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2008;3(3):134-9.
17. Ahmed Z, Khan SS, Khan M, Tanveer A, Ahmad Lone Z. Synergistic Effect of Salvadora persica Extracts, Tetracycline and Penicillin Against Staphylococcus aureus. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2010;2(1-2):25-9.
18. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disc Susceptibility Tests, NCCLS. january 2002;22(1).
19. Eja ME, Arikpo GE, Enyi-Idoh KH, Ikpeme EM. An evaluation of the antimicrobial synergy of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Utazi (Gongronema latifolium) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 2011; Vol 7(1):49- 53.
20. Egbobor ME, Asikong BE, Abriba C, Arikpo GE, Anwan EE, Enyi-Idoh kh. a comparative assessment of the antimicrobial effects of garlic (allium sativum) and antibiotics on diarrheagenic organisms. southeast asian j trop med public health. 2007;vol 38 s( No. 2).