IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 02, January, 2013
PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Author: Rajamurugan R., Deepa V., Sivashanmugam M., Raghavan C. M.
Category: General Sciences
Plants are the most important sources of medicines. Today the large number of drugs in use is derived from plants. The important advantages for therapeutic uses of medicinal plants in various ailments are their safety besides being economical, effective and easy availability. The present investigation was aimed to screen phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Aegle marmelos, Ocimum sanctum, Alternanthera sessilis, Eclipta alba, and Acalypha indica. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in all the extracts. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assay. All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. The plant preparations were also screened individually for antibacterial activity against three selected bacterial sp by agar-well diffusion method. Results showed that all the extracts were effective against bacterial sp tested.
Keywords: Aegle marmelos, Ocimum sanctum, Alternanthera sessilis, Antioxidant activity, Antimicrobial activity.
Rajamurugan R., Deepa V., Sivashanmugam M., Raghavan C. M.. PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 05 Issue 02, January, 08-19
1. Alonso-Paz E, Cerdeiras MP, Fernandez J, Ferreira F, Moyna P, Soubes M, Vazquez A, Veros S, Zunno L (1995). Screening of Uruguayan medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J. Ethanopharm. 45: 67-70.
2. Nascimento S C, Chiappeta A, Lima R M (1990). Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities in plants from pernambuco, Braz. Fitoter. 61: 353- 355.
3. Sukanya S L, Sudisha J, Hariprasad P, Niranjana S R, Prakash H S and Fathima S K (2009). Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plants against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (23): 6677-6682.
4. Nadeem Ahmad Siddique, Mohd Mujeeb, Abdul Kalam Najmi and Mohd Akram (2010). Evaluation of antioxidant activity,quantitative estimation of phenols and flavonoids in different parts of Aegle marmelos. African Journal of Plant Science, 4 (1): 001-005
5. Charakbraty B, Malik C, Bhatthacharya S (1960). Studies on the effect of green leaves of Aegle marmelos and Piper nigrum on the glucose and cholesterol levels of blood in diabetes mellitus. Indian Med. Forum 9: 285- 28.
6. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (1988). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. VolIV, Part- I, Ist -Edition, Govt. of India, Ministry of health and family welfare, Dept. of AYUSH, New Delhi.
7. Renu (1983). Fungitoxicity of leaf extracts of some higher plants against Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn. Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 6: 245-246
8. Banerji N and Kumar R (1980) Studies on the seed oil of A. marmelos and its effect on some bacterial species. J. Inst. Chem., 52.
9. Banerjee A (1980). Antimicrobial and anti helminthic screening of the fixed oil and unsaponefiable matter of Aegle marmelos. Conf. Proc. 67th session, Indian Science Congress. Calcutta Part III. Chemistry Section, Abstr., 247.
10. Sur T K, Pandit S, Pramanik T (1999). Antispermatogenic activity of leaves of Aegle marmelos, corr. In albino rats: a preliminary report. Biomed. 19:199-202.
11. Hannan J M A, Marenah L, Ali L, Rokeya B, Flatt P R, and Abdel-wahab Y H A (2006). Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts stimulate insulin secretion from perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic β-cells. J Endocrinol. 189:127–136.
12. Sharma M K, Kumar M, and Kumar A (2002). Ocimum sanctum aqueous leaf extract provides protection against mercury induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Ind J Exp Biol. 40:1079–1082.
13. Ubaid F S, Anantrao K M, Jaju J B, Mateenuddin M D (2002). Effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in rats. Ind J Phy Pharm. 47(4):465–470.
14. Archana Borah, Yadav R N S and Unni B G (2011). In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Alternanthera sessilis. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research, 2(6): 1502-1506
15. Chopra R N, Nayar S L, and Chopra I C (1966).Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Res., pp: 104.
16. Prabu K, Shankarlal S, Natarajan E, and Mohamed Sadiq A (2011). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Eclipta alba. Advances in Biological Research, 5 (5): 237-240.
17. Oudhia P (2003). Traditional medicinal uses in India. J. Planta Medica. 15(5): 175-179.
18. Valsara T (1994). Screening of Indian Medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J. Ethnobiol. 35(3): 275-283
19. Sofowora A (2006). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa.2nd edn., Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, pp 151-153, 209-214.
20. Trease G E, and Evans W C (2002). Pharmacognosy. 15th ed. Saunders, London. pp. 53-336.
21. Braca A, De Tommasi N, Di Bari L, Pizza C, Politi M, and Morelli I (2001). Antioxidant principles from Bauhinia tarapotensis. J Nat Prod. 64: 892–895.
22. Baltrusaityte V, Venskutonis PR, and Ceksteryte V (2007). Radical scavenging activity of different floral origin honey and beebread phenolic extracts. Food Chem. 101: 502–514.
23. Oyaizu M (1986). Studies on products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn. J. Nutr. 44:307-314.
24. Collins C H, Lynes P M and Grange J M (1995). Microbiological methods, 7th edn.Butterwort-Heinemann Ltd. Britain, pp 175- 190
25. Ahmad I and Beg A Z (2001). Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J. Ethnopharmacology, 74: 113-23.
26. Chapagain B P, Wiesman Z, and Tsror L (2007). In vitro study of the antifungal activity of saponin-rich extracts against prevalent phytopathogenic fungi. Industrial Crops and Products, 26:109-15.
27. Xiong Hai-Rong, Luo J, Hou W, Xiao H, and Yang Zhan-Qiu, (2011). The effect of emodin, an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the roots of Rheum tanguticum, against herpes simplex virus in vitro and in vivo. J. Ethnopharmacology, 133: 718- 723.
28. Maxwell S R (1995). Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies. Drugs 49: 345-361.
29. Jovanovic S V and Simic M G (2000). Antioxidants in nutrition. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 899:326-634. 30. Finkel T and Holbrook N J (2000). Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature, 408: 239-247.
31. Veerapur V P, Prabhakar K R, Parihar V K, Kandadi M R, Ramakrishana S, Mishra B, Satish Rao S B, Srinivasan K K, Priyadarsini K I, and Unnikrishnan M K (2009). Ficus racemosa stem bark extract: a potent antioxidant and a probable natural radioprotector. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 6: 317-324.
32. Sanchez-Moreno C (2002). Methods used to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity in foods and biological systems. Food Sci Tech Int. 8: 121-137.
33. Long L H, Kwee D C, and Halliwell B (2000). The antioxidant activities of seasonings used in Asian cooking. Powerful antioxidant activity of dark soy sauce revealed using the ABTS assay. Free Radic Res. 32: 181-186.
34. Blazovics A, Lugasi A, Szentmihalyi K, and Kery A (2003). Reducing power of the natural polyphenols of Sempervivum tectorum in vitro and in vivo: Acta Biological Szegediensis, 47 (1?4):99? 102.
35. Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kirecci E, and Kufrevioglu I (2003). Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpella anisum L.) Seed extracts: Food Chem 83:371?382.
36. Okemo P O (1996). Antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicinal plants used by Kenyan Herbal doctors. Ph.D. thesis, Kenyatta University of Nairobi, pp. 173-90
. 37. Hedberg I, Hedberg O, Madati P, Mshigeni KE, Mshiu EN, and Samuelsson G (1983). Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in Tanzania. II. Plants of the family Dilleniaceae to Opiliaceae. J. Ethnopharm. 9: 105-128.
38. Eloff J N (1998). Which extract should be used for screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants. J. Ethnopharm. 60: 1-8.
39. Cowan M M (1999). Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 564-582.
40. Cowan M M (1999). Plants products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 564-582.
41. Hagerman A E (2002). Tannin chemistry. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, USA.
42. Scalbert A (1991). Antimicrobial properties of tannin. Phytochem. 30:3875-3883.
43. (Jones G A, McALLISTER T A, MUIR A D, CHENG K J (1994). Effects of saifoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) condensed tannins on growth and proteolysis by four strains of luminal bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 1374-1378.
Fig. 2. Scavenging activity (%) on ABTS radicals of the extracts. Each value is expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 3). Am- Aegle marmelos, Os- Ocimum sanctum, As- Alternanthera sessilis, Ea- Eclipta alba, and AiAcalypha indica; and ASC- Ascorbic acid
Fig. 3. Reducing power of the extracts (higher absorbance indicates higher reducing power). Each value is expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 3). Am- Aegle marmelos, Os- Ocimum sanctum, As- Alternanthera sessilis, Ea- Eclipta alba, and AiAcalypha indica; and ASC- Ascorbic acid
Fig.4. Antibacterial activities of the extracts against E. coli (agar-well diffusion method). Am- Aegle marmelos, Os- Ocimum sanctum, As- Alternanthera sessilis, Ea- Eclipta alba, and Ai- Acalypha indica
Fig.5. Antibacterial activities of the extracts against S. aureus (agar-well diffusion method). Am- Aegle marmelos, Os- Ocimum sanctum, As- Alternanthera sessilis, Ea- Eclipta alba, and Ai- Acalypha indica
Fig.6. Antibacterial activities of the extracts against Pr. mirabilis (agar-well diffusion method). AmAegle marmelos, Os- Ocimum sanctum, As- Alternanthera sessilis, Ea- Eclipta alba, and Ai- Acalypha indica.
Fig.7. Antibacterial activities of the extracts (agar-well diffusion method). 7 A- Aegle marmelos, S.aureus; 7 B- Aegle marmelos Pr. mirabilis; 7 C- Aegle marmelos, E. coli; 7 D- Ocimum sanctum, S.aureus; 7 E- Ocimum sanctum, Pr. mirabilis; 7 F- Ocimum sanctum, E. coli; 7 G- Alternanthera sessilis, S.aureus; 7 H- Alternanthera sessilis, Pr. mirabilis; 7 I- Alternanthera sessilis, E. coli; 7 JEclipta alba, S.aureus; 7 K- Eclipta alba, Pr. mirabilis; 7 L- Eclipta alba, E. coli; 7 M- Acalypha indica, S.aureus; and 7 N- Acalypha indica, Pr. mirabilis;7 O- Acalypha indica, E. coli.