IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 04, February, 2013
RACIAL VARIATIONS IN SERUM LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS IN BANGALEE AND CHAKMA POPULATIONS OF BANGLADESH
Author: Dwaipayan Sikdar, Mohammad Abul Hashem, Ramendu Parial
Background: Racial differences in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels exist and assumed to be important determinants of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate if there are any differences in serum lipid and lipoprotein level in the population of two different races of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Ninty one Chakma subjects (43 male and 48 female) and equal number of Bangalee subjects (39 male and 52 female) were randomly selected. Serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) of the study subjects were measured using commercial kits and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Result: The Bangalee subjects had higher levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and lower level of HDL-C than the Chakma population. The Bangalee males had higher TC, TG and LDL-C than the Chakma male. No significant difference was observed for HDL-C. Bangalee female had higher TC and TG and lower HDL-C than the Chakma female. No significant difference was found for LDL-C. Conclusion: This study clearly showed that racial variations exist in serum lipid and lipoproteins levels between the Bangalee and Chakma population of Bangladesh. Keywords: Racial variation, Lipid, Lipoprotein, Bangalee, Chakma.
Dwaipayan Sikdar, Mohammad Abul Hashem, Ramendu Parial. RACIAL VARIATIONS IN SERUM LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS IN BANGALEE AND CHAKMA POPULATIONS OF BANGLADESH International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 05 Issue 04, February, 55-60
1. Reddy KS, Yusuf S. Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Circulation 1998; 97 (6): 596-601. 2. Summary of the National Cholesterol Program (NCEP). Adult Treatment Panel II report. JAMA 1993; 269: 3015-3023. 3. Smith GD, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG, Rose G. Plasma Cholesterol concentration and mortality. JAMA 1992; 267. 4. Koukkou E, Watts GF, Mazurkiewicz J, Lowy C. Ethnic differences in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in pregnant women of African and Caucasian origin. J Clin Pathol 1994; 47: 1105-1107. 5. Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Cassel JC, Kupper LL, Cassel JC, Tyroler HA. Multivariate analysis of risk of coronary heart disease in Evans county, Georgia. Arch Intern Med 1971; 128: 943-948. 6. Tyroler HA, Heyden S, Bartel A, Cassel J, Cornoni JC, Hames CG, et al. Blood pressure and cholesterol as coronary heart disease risk factors. Arch Intern Med 1971; 128: 907-914. 7. Gillum RF. Coronary heart disease in black populations I. Mortality and morbidity. Am Heart J 1982; 104: 852-864. 8. Gillum RF. Pathophysiology of hypertension in Blacks and Whites. Hypertension 1979; 1: 468-475. 9. Five year finding of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program II. Mortality by race, sex and age. JAMA 1979; 242: 2572-2577. 10. United states Department of Health, education, and welfare: US Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, no 211. Weight and Height of Adults 18-74 Years of Age: United States, 1971-1974. Washington, DC, Publication no. (PHS) 79-1659, 1979 11. Glueck CJ, Gartside P, Laskarzewski PM, Khoury P, Tyroler HA. High density lipoprotein cholesterol in blacks and whites: potential ramifications for coronary heart disease. Am Heart J 1984; 108: 815-26. 12. Hames CG. Evans County cardiovascular and cerebrovascular epidemiologic studyIntroduction. Arch Intern Med 1971; 128: 883-886. 13. Tyroler HA, Hames CG, Krishan I, Heyden S, Cooper G, Cassel JC. Black-white differences in serum lipid and lipoproteins in Evans Country. Prev Med 1975; 4:541-549. 14. Tyroler HA, Heiss G, Schonfeld G, Cooper G, Heyden S, Hames CG. Apolipoprotein AI, A-II and C-II in Black and White residencts of Evan County. Circulation 1980; 62: 249-253. 15. Morrison JA, Degroot I, Kelly KA, Mellies MJ, Glueck CJ. Black-White differences in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in adults: The Cincinnati Lipid Research Clinic Population Study. Prev Med 1979; 8: 34-39. 16. Slack J, Noble N, Meade TW, North WRS. Lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in 1604 men and women in working populations in Northwest London. BMJ 1977; 2: 353-357. 17. Morrison JA, Khoury P, Mellies M, Kelly K, Horvitz R, Glueck. CJ. Lipid and lipoprotein distributions in Black adults: The Cincinnati Lipid Research Clinics Princeton School Study. JAMA 1981; 245: 939-942. 18. Tyroler HA, Glueck CJ, Christensen B, Kwiterovich PO. Plasma High-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparison in Black and White population: The Lipid research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation 1980; 62: 99-107. 19. Morrison JA, DeGroot I, Kelly KA, Mellies MJ, Khoury P, Lewis D et al: Black and White differences in plasma lipoproteins in Cincinnati school children (one-to-one pair matched by total cholesterol, sex and age). Metabolism 1979; 28: 241-245. 20. Frerichs RR, Srinivasan SR, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 3446 children from biracial community: The Bogalusa heart study. Circulation 1976; 54:302-308. 21. Srinivasan SR, Frerichs RR, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Serum lipoprotein profile in children from a biracial community: The Bogalusa heart study. Circulation 1976; 54:309-318. 22. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasm without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972; 18: 499- 502. 23. Donahue RP, Jacobs DR, Sidney S, Wagenknecht LE, Albers JJ, Hulley SB. Distribution of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in young adults: The CARDIA Study. Arteriosclerosis 1989; 9: 656-64. 24. Srinivasan SR, Wattigney W, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Race and gender differences in serum lipoproteins of children, adolescents and young adults-emergence of an adverse lipoprotein pattern in white males: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Prev Med 1991; 20:671-84. 25. Ruixing Y, Qiming F, Dezhai Y, Shuquan L, Weixiong L, Shangling P, et al. Comparison of demography, diet, lifestyle, and serum lipid levels between the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. J lipid Res 2007; 48: 2673- 2681. 26. Tan CE, Tai ES, Tan CS, Chia KS, Lee J, Chew SK, et al. APOE polymorphism and lipid profile in three ethnic groups in the Singapore population. Atherosclerosis 2003; 170 (2): 253-260. 27. Yangchun Z, Bingxian HE, Dayi HU, Xinehun Y, Xinli L, Xinguo Z, et al. Nationality differences in distributions of serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins levels in Xinjiang China. Chinese Med J 2001; 114(11): 1128-1131. 28. Hoque MR, Kabir MG, Sikdar D. Racial Variation in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in type 2 diabetic subjects of Bangladesh. J. bio-sci 17: 113-116, 2009. 29. Russo P, Siani A, Miller MA, Karanam S, Esposito T, Gianfrancesco F, et al. Genetic variants of Y chromosome are associated with a protective lipid profile in Black men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008; 28: 1569-1574. 30. Singh VP, Ramesh V, Somvanshi S, Tewari S, Khan F, Sinha N, et al. Association of DNA polymorphism at the apolipoprotein B-100 gene locus with plasma lipid concentration and coronary artery disease among North Indians. Am. J Biochem and Biotech 2006; 2 (4): 138-145.