IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 04, February, 2013
ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS FROM SOILS OF METAL SCRAP SITES
Author: G.A. Boamponsem, A.K. Obeng, M. Osei-Kwateng, A.O. Badu
Category: General Sciences
Heavy metal contamination of our ecosystem is one of the major environmental challenges facing our world today. Fungi have the ability to take out heavy metals from soils. Studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of using Pleurotus ostreatus for the removal of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) from soils of metal scrap sites. P. ostreatus was cultivated on soil samples using sawdust as a substrate. With soils of metal scrap sites, Fe recorded the highest level (10.740 – 68.500 mg/kg) and the least accumulated metal was Cu with a range of <0.02– 26.97 mg/kg. In both harvests, Fe was the most absorbed metal followed by Mn, Zn and Cu. In the first harvest, Fe absorption by P. ostreatus was 2.193 – 3.233 mg/kg and that of Mn, 0.486 – 0.580 mg/kg. Zn and Cu concentrations were in the range of 0.276 – 0.539 mg/kg and 0.0200 – 0.0290 mg/kg respectively. With the second harvest, levels of Fe and Mn in P. ostreatus ranged from 2.33 – 3.79 mg/kg and 0.499 – 0.713 mg/kg respectively. Zn concentration was 0.236 – 0.565 mg/kg and Cu recorded 0.0165 – 0.0820 mg/kg. With the control soil, concentrations of heavy metals in P. ostreatus were 0.0110 – 2.027 mg/kg in first and 0.0110 – 1.670 mg/kg in second harvest. P. ostreatus had a good potential for removing Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu from soils of metal scrap sites which contained these heavy metals in high concentrations above the WHO and USEPA standards. Pleurotus ostreatus can be used to amend heavy metal polluted sites.
Keywords: environmental pollution, mycoremediation, metal scrap site, Pleurotus oystreatus, heavy metals
G.A. Boamponsem, A.K. Obeng, M. Osei-Kwateng, A.O. Badu. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS FROM SOILS OF METAL SCRAP SITES International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 05 Issue 04, February, 01-09
1. Abioye, O. P., Abdul Aziz, A., Agamuthu, P. (2010). Enhanced Biodegradation of Used Engine Oil in Soil Amended with Organic Wastes. Water Air and Soil Pollution. 209: 173 – 179.
2. Adelekan, B. A. and Abegunde, K. D. (2011). Heavy metals contamination of soil and groundwater at automobile mechanic villages in Ibadan, Nigeria International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 6 (5), pp. 1045-1058.
3. Antonijevic, M., Maric, M. (2008). Determination of the content of heavy metals in pyrite contaminated soil and plants. Sensors 8:5857–5865.
4. Arica, M.Y.; Arpa, C.; Kaya, B.; Bektas, S.; Denizilli, A. And Gene, O. (2003).Comparative biosorption of mercuricion from aquatic systems by immobilized live and heatinactivated Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus sajo-caju. Bioresource Technology 89(2):145-154.
5. Barr, D.P. and Aust, S.D. (1994). Mechanisms of white fungi use to degrade pollution. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28 (2): 79 – 87.
6. Begume, A., Ramaiah, M., Harikrishna, Khan I., Veena, K. (2009). Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Soil and Litchens from Various Localities of Hosur Road, Bangalore, India. E-J. Chem., 6(1): 13-22. http://www.e-journals.net.
7. Cooper, D.C., Neal, A.L., Kukkadapu, R.K., Brewe, D., Coby A, Picardal F.W. (2005). Effects of Sediment Iron Mineral Composition on Microbially Mediated Changes in Divalent Metal Speciation: Importance of Ferrihydrite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69: 1739-1754.
8. Cossich, E S., Tavares, C.R.G., Ravagnani, T.M.K. (2002). Biosorption of chromium (III) by Sargassum sp biomass. August 15 (Cited 26 October, 2005). Available from http//www.ejbiotechnology.info/content/vol 5/issue15/full15/index html. ISSN 0717- 3458. Elec. J. Biotech., 5(2): 133-140.
9. Courtecuisse, R. (1999). Collins guide to the mushrooms of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins Publishers, London.
10. Gazso, L.G. (2001). The Key Microbial Processes in the Removal of Toxic Metals and Radio nuclides from the Environment. A review. Cent. Eur. J. Occup. Environ. Med., 7(3): 178–185.
11. Hamilton-Taylor J., Smith, EJ, Davison, W., Sugiyama, M. (2005). Resolving and Modeling the Effects of Fe and Mn Redox Cycling on Trace Metal Behavior in a Seasonally Anoxic Lake. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 69: 1947-1960.
12. Hamman, S. (2004). Bioremediation capability of white rot fungi. B- 1570, Review article, spring 2004.
13. Hitivani, N. and Mecs, L. (2003). Effects of certain heavy metals, on the growth, dye decolouration and enzyme activity of Lentinula edodes Ectoxicology and Environmental safety 55(2):199-203. http://www.microrestoration-info.com (Assesed 12-11-2012).
14. Humer, M.; Bokan, M; Amartey, S.A.; Sentijure, M. Kalan, P. and Pohleven, F. (2004). Fungal bioremediation of copper, chromium and boron treated wood as studied by electron pragmatic resonance. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 53:25-32.
15. International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre 1999. Metals in Basics of Chemical Safety, Chapter 7, Sep. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
16. Kalac, P. (2009) Chemical composition and nutritional value of European species of wild growing mushrooms: a review. Food Chem 113:9–16.
17. Kalac, P., Burda, J., Staskova, I. (1991) Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and copper in mushroom in the vicinity of a lead.
18. Kalac, P., Svoboda, L. (2005) A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms. Food Chem 69:273–281.
19. Kies, C. (1989). Copper bioavailability and metabolism. 1st ed. Plenum Press. New York.
20. Klimmek, S., Stan, H.J., Wilke, A., Bunke, G., Buchholz, R. (2001). Comparative analysis of the biosorption of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc by Algae. Environ. Sci. Technol., 35: 4283-4288.
21. Malik, A. (2004). Metal bioremediation through growing cells. Envi. Interna. 30: 261-278.
22. Nilanjana, Das; R. Vimala, and P. Karthika, (2006, 2007). School of biotechnology, chemical and biomedical engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, India.
23. Oudot, J. (1990). Selective migration of low and medium molecular weight hydrocarbon in petroleum contaminated terrestrial environment. Oil and chemical pollution 6:251-261.
24. Perelo, L. W. (2010) Review: In situ and bioremediation of organic pollutants in aquatic sediments. Journal of Hazardous Materials 177: 81 – 89.
25. Philip, J. C., Atlas, R. M. (2005). Bioremediation of contaminated soil and aquifers. In: Bioremediation: Applied Microbial Solution for Real- World Environmental Clean Up. Atlas, R. M., and Jim, C. P. (ed.) ASM Press, ISBN 1-55581- 239-2, Washington, D.C., pp.139.
26. Ruiz-Manriquez A., Magaña, P. I., Lopez, R., and Guzman, R. (1998). Biosorption of Cu by Thiobacillum ferrooxidans, Bioprocess Engineering 18, pp. 113-118.
27. Samuel, O., Florence, E., Emmanuel, A. and Fredrick, A., (2010). Human risk assessment and epidemiological studies from exposure to toxic chemicals in Tarkwa-Nsuaem municipality, Prestia Huni Valley District and Cape Coast Metropolis Ghana, pp 46-49.
28. Sobha, K., Poornima, A1., Harini, P1., Veeraiah (2007). k2 a study on biochemical changes in the fresh water fish, catla catla (hamilton) exposed to the heavy metal toxicant cadmium chloride kathmandu university journal of science, engineering and technology vol.i, no.iv.
29. Stamets, P. (1999). Undated. "Helping the Ecosystem through Mushroom Cultivation." Adapted from Stamets, P. 1998. "Earth's Natural Internet." Whole Earth Magazine, Fall.
30. Stamets, P. (2005). Mycelium Running. How mushroom can help save the world Ten speed Press, Berkeley/Toronto. 1st Edition. 339 pp.
31. Turkekul, I., Elmastas, M. and Tuzen, M., (2004) Determination of iron, manganese, zinc, lead and cadmium in mushroom samples from Tokat, Turkey, Food chem. 84, 389-392.
32. Veglio, F., Beolchini, F. (1997): Removal of metals by biosorption: a review. Hydrometallurgy 44, 301-316.
33. Volesky, B., Holan, Z.R. (1995): Biosorption of heavy metals. Biotechnology Programme. 11, 235-250
34. Yamaca, M., Yldz, D., Sarku¨rkcu¨, C. C., Elikkollu, M., Halil, Solak M. (2007) Heavy metals in some edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Food Chem 103(2):263–267.