IJCRR - 5(10), May, 2013
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY FOR DRINKING AND AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES: A CASE STUDY OF SRINAGAR DISTRICT, J AND K, INDIA
Author: F. A. Bhat, Mir Irshad, Akhtar R. Mir, Bilal Parveez, Mohd Iqbal, H. Sana
Category: General Sciences
Assessment of water quality has been carried out for the Srinagar district to determine the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater. Fifty nine water samples were collected from open wells, bored wells and springs. The quality assessment was made through the estimation of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42- , HCO-3, total hardness as CaCO3, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and pH. Based on these analyses, parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), % sodium, salinity index, salinity hazard, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), potential salinity, index of Base Exchange and permeability index (PI) were calculated. As per the Gibb’s diagram, majority of the samples fall in the rock dominance area. On the bases of these determined and calculated parameters, it is concluded that the groundwater in the study area is fit for agricultural and domestic purposes.
Keywords: Srinagar District, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, permeability index
F. A. Bhat, Mir Irshad, Akhtar R. Mir, Bilal Parveez, Mohd Iqbal, H. Sana. HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY FOR DRINKING AND AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES: A CASE STUDY OF SRINAGAR DISTRICT, J AND K, INDIA International Journal of Current Research and Review. 5(10), May, 01-16
1. American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005) Standard method for examination of water and wastewater (21st Ed.). Washington: APHA, AWWA, WPCF.
2. Cederstorm DJ (1946) Genesis of groundwater in the coastal plain of Virginia. Env Geol 41: 218–245.
3. Ministry of Home Affairs. Government of India (2011) http://censusindia.gov.in/ Accessed 10 June 2012.
4. Collins R, Jenkins A (1996) The impact of agricultural land use on stream chemistry in the middle hills of the Himalayas, Nepal. J Hydr 185: 71–86.
5. Datta PS, Tyagi SK (1996) Major ion chemistry of groundwater in Delhi area: Chemical weathering processes and groundwater flow regime. J Geol Soc India 47: 179–188.
6. Davis SN, DeWiest RJ (1966) Hydrogeology. New York: Wiley.
7. Domenico PA (1972) Concepts and models in groundwater hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York.
8. Doneen LD (1961) The influence of crop and soil on percolating waters. California, USA: Proceeding of Ground Water Recharge Conference.
9. Doneen LD (1962) The influence of crop and soil on percolating water. In: Proceedings of the biennial conference on ground water recharge, (pp156–163).
10. Doneen LD (1964) Notes on water quality in agriculture. Davis: Water Science and Engineering, University of California.
11. Eaton EM (1950) Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Sci 69: 12–133.
12. Elango L, Kannan R, Kumar S (2003) Major ion chemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in a part of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. J Env Geosci 10(4): 157–166.
13. Foster SSD (1995) Groundwater for development: An overview of quality constraints. In: Nash H, McCall GJH (eds) Groundwater quality, (17th special report, pp. 1–3). London: Chapman and Hall.
14. Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
15. Garrels RM (1976) A Survey of Low Tempera-ture Water Mineral Relations, in Interpretation of Environmental Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Data in Groundwater Hydrology: Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency pp. 65–84.
16. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanism controlling world water chemistry. Sci 170: 1088–1090.
17. Gupta S, Mahato A, Roy P, Datta JK (2008) Geochemistry of groundwater, Burdwan District, West Bengal, India. Env Geol 53: 1271–1282.
18. Gupta SK, Gupta IC (1987) Management of saline soils and water. 399. New Delhi: Oxford and IBM Publ. Co.
19. Handa BK (1969) Description and classification of media for hydrogeochemical investigations. In: Symposium on ground water studies in arid and semiarid regions, Roorkee. 20. Hem JD (1991) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, (3rd Ed.) Book 2254: Scientific Publ. Jodhpur, India.
21. Hussein MT (2004) Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multi-variate techniques. Hydr J 12: 144– 158. doi: 10.1007/s10040-003-0265-5.
22. Ishaku JM (2011). Assessment of groundwater quality index for Jimeta-Yola area, Northeastern Nigeria. J. Geol. and Min. Res. 3(9): 219-231.
23. Jeevanandam M, Kannan R, Srinivasalu S, Rammohan V (2006) Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India. Env Monit Assess 132(1): 263–274. doi: 10.1007/s10661-006- 9532-y.
24. Kalra YP, Maynard DG (1991) Methods manual for forest soil and plant analysis. Information report NOR-X-319, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Forestry Canada.
25. Karanth KR (1989) Hydrogeology, 1–455,. New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw Hill Publ. Co. Ltd.
26. Kelly WP (1940) Permissible composition and concentration of irrigation waters. Proceedings of ASCE 66: 607.
27. Kelly WP (1951) Alkali soils—their formation, proper-ties and reclamation. New York: Reinhold.
28. Kumar SK, Rammohan V, Sahayam JD, Jeevanandam, M (2009) Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Env Monit Assess 159: 341–351.
29. Kumar M, Ramanathan AL, Rao MS, Kumar B (2006) Identification and evaluation of hydrogeochemical process in the groundwater environment of Delhi, India. Env Geol 50: 1025–1039.
30. Lusczynski NJ, Swarzenski WV (1996) Saltwater Encroachment in Southern Nassu and SE Queen Countries, Long Island, New York. USGS Paper, 1613-F.
31. Meyback M (1987) Global chemical weathering of surficial rocks estimated from river dissolved loads. Amer J Sci 287: 401– 428.
32. Mathhess G (1982) The properties of ground water (1st Ed.). New York: Wiley.
33. Mills B (2003) Interpreting water analysis for crop and pasture, file No. FS0334, DPI’s Agency for Food and Fiber Sciences, Toowoomba.
34. Mohan R, Singh AK, Tripathi JK, Choudhry GC (2000) Hydrochemistry and quality assessment of ground water in Naini industrial area Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh. J Geol Soc India 55: 77–89.
35. Paliwal KV (1967) Effect of gypsum application on the quality of irrigation waters. The Madras Agric J 59: 646–647.
36. Piper AM (1944) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water-analyses. Transactions -American Geophysical Union 25: 914–923.
37. Ragunath HM (1987) Groundwater, 563, New Delhi: Wiley Eastern.
38. Richards LA (US Salinity Laboratory) (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils (p. 60). US Department of Agriculture hand book.
39. Saleh A, Al-Ruwaih F, Shehata M (1999) Hydrogeo-chemical processes operating within the main aquifers of Kuwait. J Arid Environments 42: 195–209.
40. Sastri JCV (1994) Groundwater chemical quality in river basins, Hydrogeochemical modeling. Lecture notes—refresher course, School of Earth Sciences. Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India.
41. Sawyer GN, McCarthy DL (1967) Chemistry of sanitary engineers (2nd ed., p. 518). New York: McGraw Hill.
42. Sanchez-Perez JM, Tremolieres M (2003) Changes in groundwater chemistry as a consequence of suppressions of floods. The case of Rhine floodplains. J Hydr 270: 89– 104.
43. Schoeller H (1977) Geochemistry of groundwater. In: Groundwater studies—An international guide for research and practice (Ch. 15, pp. 1–18). Paris: UNESCO.
44. Schroeder HA (1960) Relations between hardness of water and death rates from certain chronic and degenerative diseases in the United States. J Chron Dis 12: 586–59.
45. Singh H (1983) Crop production in India. Agricultural Situation in India 38,635–63
46. Schuh WM, Klinekebiel DL, Gardner JC, Meyar RF (1997) Tracer and nitrate movements to groundwater in the Norruem Great Plains. J Environ Quality 26: 1335– 1347
47. Subramani T, Rajmohan N, Elango L (2009) Groundwater geochemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes in a hard rock region, Southern India. Env Monit Assess doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-0781-4
48. Szabolcs I, Darab C (1964) The influence of irrigation water of high sodium carbonate content of soils. In Proceedings of 8th international congress of ISSS, Trans, II (pp. 803-812).
49. Todd DK (1959) Groundwater hydrology. (p. 535). New York: Wiley.
50. Todd DK (1980) Groundwater hydrology. (2nd ed., p. 315). New York: Wiley.
51. Todd DK (2001). Groundwater hydrology. (pp.280-281): John Wiley and Sons Publication, Canada,
52. Walton WC (1970) Groundwater Resources Evaluation. Mc Graw Hill Book Co., New York.
53. WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking water quality). Geneva: World Health Organization.
54. Wilcox LV (1995) Classification and use of irrigation waters (pp.19). Washington: US Department of Agriculture.