IJCRR - 5(13), July, 2013
THE INCIDENCE OF OSSIFIED SUPERIOR TRANSVERSE SCAPULAR LIGAMENT (STSL) IN TAMIL NADU POPULATION OF INDIA
Author: A. Perumal, Ravichandran D.
Background: Suprascapular neuropathy is due to suprascapular nerve entrapment in the suprascapular foramen and it is one of the causes for chronic shoulder pain and dysfunction. The suprascapular notch in the superior border of the scapula is usually bridged by the Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament (STSL). Sometimes the ligament gets ossified and compresses the suprascapular nerve passing deep to it producing the characteristic symptoms of compression neuropathy. The incidence of the ossified STSL varies in different ethnic populations. This study attempts to delineate the incidence of ossified STSL in Tamil Nadu population of India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty seven (237) dry human scapulae were studied. The presence of ossified STSL noted by macroscopic examination with naked eye. Results were tabulated and statistical analysis done. Results: 9.7% of bones show complete ossification of STSL and 10.9% of bones showed partial or incomplete ossification of STSL. Conclusion: The knowledge of incidence of ossified STSL is essential for surgeons performing surgical decompression of the entrapped supra scapular nerve. This paper adds to the morphological data of the Tamil Nadu population, which would be of use to the Orthopedic surgeons working in this area.
Keywords: Scapula, superior transverse scapular ligament, entrapment, decompression, incidence.
A. Perumal, Ravichandran D.. THE INCIDENCE OF OSSIFIED SUPERIOR TRANSVERSE SCAPULAR LIGAMENT (STSL) IN TAMIL NADU POPULATION OF INDIA International Journal of Current Research and Review. 5(13), July, 88-92
1. Vivek Agrawal . Arthroscopy. The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 2009; 25 (3): 325-328.
2. Thomas A. La paralysie du muscle sounepineux 1936; 64: 1283-1284.
3. Charalambos P. Economides et al. An unusual case of suprascapular nerve neuropathy: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011; 5: 419.
4. Srijit Das, Rajesh Suri, Vijay Kapur. Ossification of Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament and its Clinical Implications. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal 2009; 7(2): 157-160.
5. Ticker JB et al. The incidence of ganglion cysts and other variations in anatomy along the course of the suprascapular nerve. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg 1998; 7: 472-478.
6. Lewis OJ. The coracoclavicular joint. J. Anat 1959; 93: 296-303.
7. Harris RI, Vu DH, Sonnabend DH et al. Anatomic variance of the coracoclavicular ligaments. J Shoulder Elbow Surger 2001: 10: 585-588.
8. Rengachary SS, Burr D, Lucas S. Suprascapular entrapment neuropathy: a clinical, anatomical, and comparative study. Part 3: comparative study. Neurosurgery 1979; 5: 452-455.
9. Kajava Y. Uber den Schultergiirtel der Finen. Ann Acad Sci. Fenn. Series A 1924; 21 (5): 1-69.
10. Vallois HV. L’os acromial dans les races humaine. L’Anthropologie, Paris 1925; 35: 977-1022.
11. Silva JG et al. High incidence of complete ossification of the superior transverse scapular ligament in Brazilians and its clinical implications. Int. J.Morphol 2007; 25 (4): 855-859.
12. Jadav SD et al. Supra-scapular foramen in Indian dry scapulae. National Journal of Clinical Anatomy 2012; 1(3): 133-135.
13. Morrigl B. Jax P, Milz S. et al. Fibrocartilage at the entheses of the suprascapular (superior transverse scapular) ligament of man – A ligament spanning two regions of a single bone. J. Anat 2001; 199 (5): 539 – 545.
14. Hrdlicka A. The scapula: Visual observations. Am J Phys Anthropol 1942; 29: 73-94.
15. Cohen SB, Dnes DM, Moorman CT. Familial calcification of the superior transverse scapular ligament causing neuropathy. Clin Orthop Rel Rs 1997; 334: 131-135.
16. Laurent Lafosse, Andrea Tomasi, Gloria Baier et al. Arthroscopic Release of Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment at the Suprascapular Notch: Technique and Preliminary Results. Arthroscopy. The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 2007; 23 (1): 34-42.