IJCRR - Vol 09 Issue 05, March, 2017
Prevalence of Leptospirosis among paddy field workers in Pune, Western India
Author: Potdar Gayatri A.1, Pol Sae S.2, Bharadwaj Renu S.3
Background: Leptospirosis has been under-reported and under-diagnosed in India. Certain occupational groups such as agricultural labors, animal handlers, sewage workers, abattoir workers and miners etc. constitute high risk groups for acquiring Leptospirosis.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anti-Leptospiral antibodies among paddy field workers reporting with fever to a rural hospital in Pune district and thus to ascertain the extent of the problem in paddy field workers in Maharashtra , India.
Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional prospective study. A total of 160 paddy field workers were included in the study, during year 2013 to2014.
Materials and Methods: All patients who presented with clinical features were tested with IgM ELISA and MAT tests.
Results: The common clinical presentation amongst the paddy farmers was myalgia and headache in association with fever. Majority of patients were in the age group 30-50 years. Total 55.2% males and 44.7% females were affected. IgM ELISA was positive in 23.8% of the patients. Total 9.4 % were positive by MAT test. The commonest serovars to which antibodies were detected was Grippotyphosa. Total 60.52% of patients with laboratory confirmed leptospirosis gave evidence of leptospirosis by Faine’s Criteria.
Conclusions: Leptospirosis is thus an important cause of febrile illness in paddy field workers at risk and must be kept in mind in the management of such patients. The major prevailing serovars in Maharashtra, western India are Grippotyphosa and Hebdomadis, which differs from the prevalent serovars in urban areas. Adequate foot covers in the form of closed shoes and rubber gloves must be advised for farmers working in the paddy fields to prevent infection.
Keywords: Leptospirosis, ELISA, MAT, Paddy field workers
Potdar Gayatri A.1, Pol Sae S.2, Bharadwaj Renu S.3. Prevalence of Leptospirosis among paddy field workers in Pune, Western India International Journal of Current Research and Review. Vol 09 Issue 05, March, 22-25
1. Heath CWJ, Alexander AD, Galton MM (1965) Leptospirosis in the United States: Analysis of 483 cases in Man. N Eng J Med 273: 857-64.
2. Faine S (1982) Guidelines for the control of leptospirosis. WHO Offset Publication No. 67, Geneva.
3. Muthusethupathi MA, Shivkumar S, Suguna R, Jayakumar M, Vijaykumar R, Everard COR, et al. (1995) Leptospirosis in Madras: a clinical and serological study. JAPI 43: 456-58.
4. Shekatkar SB, Harish BN, Menezes GA, Parija SC. Clinical and serological evaluation of Leptospirosis in Puducherry, India. J Infect Dev Ctries 2010;4:139-43.
5. Pappas G, Papadimitriou P, Siozopoulou V, Christou L, Akritidis N. The globalization of leptospirosis: Worldwide incidence trends. Int J Infect Dis 2008;12:351-7.
6. Christopher AM, Mohapatra AK, Binay, Dutta TK, Kanungo R, Das AK. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis. In: Souvenir, 3rd Annual Conference of Indian Leptospirosis Society, Pondicherry, 2002. 32.
7. Kamath S. Leptospirosis In: Das S Ed. API Medicine update, Mumbai.2003; 13:1008-11.
8. Olszyna DP, Jaspars R, Speelman P, van Elzakker E, Korver H, Hartskeerl RA. Leptospirosis in the Netherlands 1991-1995. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1998; 142: 1270-1273.
9. Koutis CH. Special Epidemiology. Athens, Greece: Technological Educational Institute of Athens; 2007.
10. Padre LP, Watt G, Tuazon ML, Gray MR, Laughlin LW. A serological survey of ricefield leptospirosis in central Luzon, Philippines. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Pub. Health 1988; 19: 197-199.
11. Chan OY, Paul DR, Sng EH. Leptospirosis among abattoir workers- a serological study. Singapore Med. J. 1987; 28: 293-296.
12. Levett PN. Leptospirosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2001; 14(2): 296-326.
13. ThaipadungpanitJ,ChierakulW,WuthiekanunV,Limmathurotsakul D, Amornchai P, Boonslip S, Smythe LD, Limpaiboon R, Hoffmaster AR, Day NP, Peacock SJ, 2011. Diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA and lipl32 genes for human leptospirosis.
14. Christopher AM, Mohapatra AK, Binay Dutta TK, Kanungo R, Das AK (2002) Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis. In: Abstracts, 3rd Annual Conference of Indian Leptospirosis Society, Pondicherry, p32.
15. Sandhya A Kamath, Shashank R Joshi. March 2003Re-emerging of Infections in Urban India - Focus Leptospirosis. JAPI vol. 51.
16. Everard COR, Hayes RJ, Fraser Chanpong GM. A serosurvey of leptospirosis in Trinidad among urban and rural dwellers and persons occupationally at risk. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1985; 79(l): 96-105.
17. Swapna RN, Tuteja U, Nair L, Sudarsana J. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in high risk groups in Calicut, North Kerala, India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006;24:349-352.
18. Kalimuthusmi Natarajaseenivasan, Marimuthu Boopalan, Krishnaswami Selvanayaki, Sudalaimuthu Raja Suresh, ans Sivalingan Ratnam 2002.Leptospirosis among rice mill workers of Salem, South India. Jap J Infect Disease, 55; 170-173.
19. Patil VC, Patil HV, Agrawal V. Clinical profile and outcome of leptospirosis at tertiary care centre in western Maharashtra. J Acad Med Sci 2012;2:30-7.
20. Smita B. Shekatkar, Belgode N. Harish, Godfred A. Menezes and Subhash C. Parija. Clinical and serological evaluation of leptospirosis in Puducherry, India. J Infect Dev Ctries 2010; 4(3):139-143.
21. Bal AM, Bharadwaj RS, Joshi SA, Kagal AS, Arjunwadkar VP. Common infecting leptospiral serovars in and around Pune, Maharashtra. Indian J Med Res 2002 Jan;115:14-6.
22. Ratnam S, Subramanian S, Madanagopalan N, Sundararaj T, Jayanthi V (1983) Isolation of leptospires and demonstration of antibodies in human leptospirosis in Madras, India. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 77: 455-58.
23. National News Bureau of Thailand Public Relations Department.