IJCRR - 5(18), September, 2013
EVALUATION OF AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN A TERTIARY HEALTH CARE CENTRE
Author: Somanath Dash, Satish K., Mishra S. K. , P.Harshavardhan V.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of human morbidity and mortality globally. Its significant extra pulmonary effects have been well evidenced by many studies by different researchers. Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) which is a very common cause of blindness in elderly people is a common occurrence in many COPD cases in our clinical practice. The present study was attempted to find the existence of age related macular degeneration (ARMD) in elderly COPD patients. The study was conducted in a medical college hospital of Andhra Pradesh which is a tertiary care centre. The study was conducted among 107 COPD patients above 50 years of age. All the patients were subjected to examination of the fundus of their eyes. All statistical analyses were performed by MS Excel 2007. In twenty three subjects evidence of age related macular degeneration was found. The ARMD was more in severe and very severe stage of COPD. It was also observed more in the current smokers, especially those who are smoking more number of cigars per day. Among all the smokers 22.6% were having ARMD. Even the ARMD was also found in 24% of former smokers, those who have already stopped smoking earlier. In two non-smoker COPD subjects also ARMD was detected. The present study attempted to establish a causal relationship between these two disease entities and many significant observations were made.
Keywords: COPD, GOLD Staging, ARMD.
Somanath Dash, Satish K., Mishra S. K. , P.Harshavardhan V.. EVALUATION OF AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN A TERTIARY HEALTH CARE CENTRE International Journal of Current Research and Review. 5(18), September, 54-59
- KF, Hurd S, Anzueto A, Barnes PJ, Buist SA, Calverley P,Fukuchi Y, Jenkins C, Rodriguez-Roisin R, van Weel C, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176:532–555.
- Henrik Watz, Benjamin Waschki, Corinna Boehme, Martin Claussen, Thorsten Meyer, and Helgo Magnussen. Extrapulmonary Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Physical Activity A Cross-sectional Study American Journal Of Respiratory And Critical Care Medicine Vol 177 2008:743- 751.
- Jan Tkac, S. F. Paul Man, Don D. Sin Systemic consequences of COPD Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease (2007) 1(1) 47–59.
- Stephen j. Ryan; Retina; 4th edition; Volume-2; Page 1041
- Christen WG Jr.; Antioxidants and eye disease Am J Med. 1994 Sep 26;97(3A):14S-17S; discussion 22S-28S.
- Ján Tká?c, S. F. Paul Man, Don D. Sin Systemic consequences of COPD Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease (2007) 1(1) 47–59
- Irfan Rahman, Douglas Morrison, Kenneth Donaldson, And William MAcNEE; Systemic Oxidative Stress in Asthma, COPD, and Smokers AM J RESPIR CRIT CARE MED 1996;154:1055-60
- Nadeem A, Raj HG, Chhabra SK; Increased oxidative stress and altered levels of antioxidants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Inflammation. 2005 Feb;29(1):23-32.
- Smoking and Age-related Macular Degeneration The POLA Study Arch Ophthalmol. 1998; 116:1031-1035
- Joan B. Soriano et al; Patterns of Co morbidities in Newly Diagnosed COPD and Asthma in Primary Care;CHEST 2005; 128:2099–2107.
- O. Kayacan, S. Beder, G. Deda, D. Karnak; Neurophysiological Changes In Copd patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency; Acta neurol. belg., 2001, 101, 160-165
- Sezer Et Al ;Visual Evoked Potential Changes In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Eur J Gen Med 2007;4(3):115-118
- Daisy Chan OD ; Cigarette smoking and age related macular degeneration; Optometry and vision science, Vol. 75, No:7, July 1998; 476 – 48.
COPD – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
GOLD - Global Initiative for chronic obstructive lung diseases
ARMD - Age related macular degeneration
RPE - Retinal pigmentary epithelium
NAPDH - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Reduced Form)
FEV1 - Forced Expiratory Volume in one second
SD - Standard Deviation
VEP - Visual Evoke Potential
POLA - Pathologies Oculaires Lie´es a` l’Age
HDL - High density lipoprotein