International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 02, January, 2016

Pages: 01-06

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


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KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES TOWARDS PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH AMONG MEDICAL POSTGRADUATES IN A TEACHING TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

Author: Madhavrao C., Mythili Bai K., Rema Menon N., Sharath Babu K., Prathab Asir A.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the KAP towards principles of research in medical postgraduates in a teaching tertiary care centre. Materials and Methods: After obtaining approval from the IHEC and valid informed consent, the participants were recruited into the study. The study included 26 medical postgraduates from different disciples and who were asked to fill the pre-validated structured questionnaire on principles of research. The study was conducted during the period of January 2014- March 2015. The collected data from questionnaire forms were entered into Microsoft office excel 2007 and was expressed in frequency and percentage. Results: It was observed that more than 50% of study participants were able to answer the correct response for questions on knowledge about the principles of research. Majority of the study participants [88.46%] were able to mark the correct response for the definition of research. The study also showed that attitude towards research among medical postgraduates was positive with 92.31% were opined to have or undergo seminars/ workshops/CME to update their knowledge on principles of research periodically. However the practice towards principle of research seems to be not satisfactory. It was noticed that only 7.69% of study participants had experience in sending the manuscript for publication in peer reviewed journals. Conclusion: There was good knowledge and positive attitude, with poor practices towards principles of research among medical postgraduates.

Keywords: KAP, Research, Postgraduates, Medical, Tertiary care centre

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Training in health research area constitutes a very essential part of medical education.1 It is essential to attract the students’ interest towards research, so that in future the good quality of research can be conducted to improve the medical health care system existing in the nation as well as in the world. Knowledge on principles of research is important for health care professionals, so that they can conduct well planned and high quality of research which directly or indirectly contributes for advancement of medical health care system.2 It has been observed, the conflicting and inconsistent reports from different parts of world on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices [KAP] towards research among various health care professionals.3 The adherence to International Conference on Harmonization [ICH] standard guidelines on Good Clinical Practice [GCP] in research varies among countries4 and it is highly essential to understand the awareness about basic principles of GCP while conducting the research and hence its implementation for high quality data generation and applying it to the whole population.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices [KAP] towards principles of research is an important issue as:

1. KAP towards research varies from place to place and from country to country

2. Knowledge on Research principles is not up to the mark among health care professionals in all over the world2

3. There is an indeed to understand the awareness about research principles specially among students, interns and postgraduates as it marks the best physician cum researcher in future5

It is essential to understand the KAP towards research principles among medical postgraduates to address the issues if any, so that the in future necessary steps will be taken to tackle these problems. Hence this study was planned to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices towards principles of research among medical postgraduates in a teaching tertiary care centre.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study design: Cross sectional survey Study setting: Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences [SMIMS], Kulasekharam [Kanyakumari District], Tamil Nadu [India] Study participants: Medical postgraduates Total participants: 26 Time period: January 2014- March 2015

Procedure After obtaining the approval from the Institutional Review Board [IRB], the participants were recruited into the study. The informed consent was obtained from all the participants of the study before enrolling them into the study. All the national as well as international principles of ethics were followed while carrying out this research. The modified self structured, pre-validated questionnaire1,3,4,6-10 on knowledge, attitude and practices towards principles of research was distributed to medical postgraduates and they were asked to return it after complete filling of these questionnaire forms. Total twenty six medical postgraduates [n =26] participated in this study and who formed the sample size of the study.

Statistical analysis The collected data was entered into the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software and was tabulated in percentage and frequency.

Results This study included twenty six postgraduates from different disciplines of medicine, who formed the sample size of the study [n= 26]. The knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the principles of research among medical postgraduates is displayed in Table 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The majority of study participants opined to do research work on clinical trials in future as displayed in Figure 1. The various obstacles in doing the research work among medical postgraduates is displayed in Figure 2.

DISCUSSION This study was a questionnaire based survey which included medical postgraduates from different disciples in a teaching tertiary care centre of Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences [SMIMS], Tamil Nadu [India]. SMIMS was affiliated to the Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R Medical University, India. In our study it was confirmed that, medical postgraduates had good knowledge about the principles of research, as more than 50% of correct responses was given, for all the questions based on knowledge of principles of research. This could be due to the fact that, Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R Medical University enforces the postgraduates to attend the research methodology workshop conducted under its umbrella. Our study findings were similar to the study carried by Pawar et al.9 at Department of Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai [India] to evaluate the awareness about medical research among resident doctors in tertiary care hospital, which included 100 participants.

The above study concluded that 58% of residents had the knowledge about the research hypothesis concept, 76% agreed to have adequate training in research, 98% were aware of obtaining the consent in case of human related research, 4% published the research work in various journals, 50% were engaged in carrying out research other than their dissertation work, 88% opined to carry out research in their future professional period and 28% had presentations at various conferences. In our study, majority of study participants [73.08%] had strong opinion that, research in their specialty encourages and improves the knowledge in their discipline with better patient care. More than 65% of medical postgraduates had keen interest in carrying out research projects in future mainly in clinical trials.

The study also found that half of the medical postgraduates were willing to review the articles in journals as reviewer during their lifetime. It seems that, medical postgraduates had positive attitude towards the principles of research in medical field. Our study findings were similar to the study7 which was done to evaluate the KAP of resident trainees towards health research at Aga Khan University [Pakistan]. The above study was a cross sectional survey in tertiary care hospital setting through the questionnaire. The study showed that resident trainees participated in basic science research [26.9%], in clinical research [59.6%] and in both basic and clinical research [13.5%].

The study also showed that 47.1% of participants had planned to carry out research in the future. Our study also highlighted various points as, more than 90% of study participants were not confident of designing the study for their own research work, only 7.69% had experience in submitting the manuscript to the various journals. It was also found that, more than half of the study participants had opined as ‘lack of time’ as the main obstacle preventing doing research. Other obstacles preventing doing research among medical postgraduates in decreasing order were, personal commitments like family problems, marriage etc, lack of mentors/assistants, lack of research curriculum and lack of interest. However in our study it was noticed that, more than 60% of medical postgraduates had experience in presenting the research work in the form of poster in various conferences.

It was also observed that, all the medical postgraduates in this study were involved in research projects as Principal Investigator [PI], this could be because of the fact that, for the partial fulfillment of either Doctor of Medicine [M.D] or Master of Surgery [M.S] courses, one has to carry the research project and need to submit the same in the form of dissertation to the medical university as per the norms of Medical Council of India [MCI].11,12

Our study also showed that only less than 4% of medical postgraduates were carrying the research work as Co-investigator [CI]. The above fact could be because of the lack of time as opined by the study participants, as the MD/MS courses are only limited to the three years, in which one has to complete their dissertation work along with other academic activities as directed by the university and MCI.11,12 As in this study, the practices of medical postgraduates towards principles of research looks somewhat unsatisfactory, but it can be well improved by motivation, interventional education strategies, providing the research atmosphere and amendment of regulations as prescribed by the university guidelines/MCI from time to time.

The various pitfalls of our study include, as it was a questionnaire based survey, there is tendency to have recall bias from the study subjects. The study data was also limited to a single centre from the southern part of Tamil Nadu, India, hence the findings can’t be made generalized. It need to have further larger data from other centers before it can be made generalized.

CONCLUSION Our study concluded that there was good knowledge and attitude but with poor practices towards principles of research among medical postgraduates.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Khan H, Khawaja MR, Waheed A, Rauf MA, Fatmi Z. Knowledge and attitudes about health research amongst a group of Pakistani medical students. Bio Med Central Med Educ 2006;6(54):1-7.

2. Gore AD, Kadam YR, Chavan PV, Dhumale GB. Application of biostatistics in research by teaching faculty and final year postgraduate students in colleges of modern medicine: A crosssectional study. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2012;2:11-6.

3. Leahy N, Sheps J, Tracy CS, Nie JX, Moineddin R, Upshur REG. Family physicians’ attitudes toward education in research skills during residency. Can Fam Physician 2008;54:413-4.e1-5.

4. Sumi E, Murayama T, Yokode M. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital. Bio Med Central Med Educ 2009;9(75):1-7.

5. Zambudio AR, Gascón FS, Moro LG, Fernández MG. Research training during medical residency (MIR). Satisfaction questionnaire. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2004;96:695-704.

6. Khan N, Mumtaz Y. Attitude of teaching faculty towards statistics at a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2009;21:166-71.

7. Khan H, Khan S, Iqbal A. Knowledge, attitudes and practices around health research: the perspective of physicians-in-training in Pakistan. Bio Med Central Med Educ 2009;9(46):1-8.

8. West CP, Ficalora RD. Clinician Attitudes Toward Biostatistics. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:939-43.

9. Pawar DB, Gawde SR, Marathe PA. Awareness about medical research among resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional survey. Perspectives Clin Res 2012;3:57-61.

10. Ganguly NK. Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants. 1st ed. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2006. p. 1-107.

11. M.D./M.S. Regulations April 2015 onwards. The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R Medical University [Online]. 2015 February 24 [cited 2015 February 24]; Available from: URL:http://www.web. tnmgrmu.ac.in/index.php/syllabus-and-regulations/192-navigation-block-1/syllabus-and-regulations/629

12. Medical Council of India Salient Features of Postgraduate Medical Education Regulations, 2000. [Online]. 2015 January 19 [cited 2015 January 19]; Available from: URL:http://www. mciindia.org/RulesandRegulations/PGMedicalEducationRegulations2000.aspx

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Best Article Award

A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

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A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


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