International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 09, May, 2012

Pages: 148-154

Date of Publication: 17-May-2012

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Author: Vijay Yeul, Bijan Shil, Rajesh Chivane

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:This research work brings to the attention of those more concern in fish issues caused by the chemical parameters on natural resource water. To carryout research on behavior / survival rate of Puti fish in Nallah water having less content of Dissolved Oxygen and low pH due to contamination of Acid mine drainage was considered. Various concentrations of synthetic acidic leachate have been used to perform the experiment. Synthetic water is prepared in laboratory for experiment. Ranvendli nallah water is collected for preparation of synthetic water and Puti fishes are collected from same nallah. pH aned Dissolved Oxygen are essential water parameters for survival of fishes in any natural resource. Experiment conducted to study fish behavior related to the concentration of the assessed parameters, pH aned Dissolved Oxygen in Six jars. The study leads to the conclusion that though acidic leachates drop the pH aned Dissolved Oxygen of natural water but fish can survive to the great extent in the same water.

Keywords: Fish, Contaminated Water, Survival, Acidic Leachate.

Full Text:

Once acid drainage is created, metals are released into the surrounding environment, and become readily available to biological organisms. In water, for example, when fish are exposed directly to metals and H+ ions through their gills, impaired respiration may result from chronic and acute toxicity. Fish are also exposed indirectly to metals through ingestion of contaminated sediments and food items. A common weathering product of sulfide oxidation is the formation of iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3), a red/orange colored precipitate found in thousands of miles of streams affected by AMD. Iron hydroxides and oxy hydroxides may physically coat the surface of stream sediments and streambeds destroying habitat, diminishing availability of clean gravels used for spawning, and reducing fish food items such as benthic macro-invertebrates. Acid mine drainage, characterized by acidic metalliferrous conditions in water, is responsible for physical, chemical, and biological degradation of stream habitat. Water contaminated by AMD, often containing elevated concentrations of metals, can be toxic to aquatic organisms, leaving receiving streams devoid of most living creatures (Kimmel 1983). Receiving waters may have pH as low as 2.0 to 4.5, levels toxic to most forms of aquatic life (Hill 1974).

Data relating to specific effects of low pH on growth and reproduction (Fromm 1980) may be related to calcium metabolism and protein synthesis. Fromm (1980) suggested that a ?no effects? level of pH for successful reproduction is near 6.5, while most fish species are not affected when the pH is in a range from 5.5 to 10.5. Howells et al. (1983) reported interactions of pH, calcium, and aluminum may be important to understanding the overall effects on fish survival and productivity. Several reports indicate low pH conditions alter gill membranes or change gill mucus resulting in death due to hypoxia. Hatchery raised salmonids can tolerate pH 5.0, but below this level hemeostatic electrolyte and osmotic mechanisms become impaired (Fromm 1980). A study of the distribution of fish in Pennsylvania streams affected by acid mine drainage (Cooper and Wagner 1973) found fish severely impacted at pH 4.5 to 5.5. Ten species revealed some tolerance to the acid conditions of pH 5.5 and below; 38 species were found living in waters with pH values ranging from 5.6 to 6.4; while 68 species were found only at pH levels greater than 6.4. Further, these investigators reported complete loss of fish in 90% of streams with waters of pH 4.5 and total acidity of 15 mg/L. Healthy, unpolluted streams generally support several species and moderate abundance of 6 individuals; whereas impacted streams are dominated by fewer species and often low to moderate numbers of only a few organisms. Streams affected by acid mine drainage are poor in taxa richness and abundance. In older studies (Warner 1971), more species of insects and algae were found in unpolluted West Virginia streams (pH > 4.5) compared to those streams polluted by acid (pH 2.8 to 3.8). Reductions of benthic fauna in a West Virginia stream severely affected by acid mine water were reported by Menendez (1978). In more recent studies (Farag et al. 2003), some streams in the Boulder River watershed in Montana impacted by nearly 300 abandoned metal mines are devoid of all fish near mine sources. Populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and cutthroat trout (O. clarki) were found further downstream and away from sources of acid mine drainage. In a 2003 study evaluating the effect of localized habitat degradation from a gold mine near the Yukon River on population structure of salmon, it was suggested that coho salmon (O. kisutch) may be at risk of losing genetic diversity due to localized habitat degradation. The abandoned Britannia copper mine in British Columbia has been releasing acid mine drainage into local waters for many years. Investigators compared fish abundance, distribution and survival at contaminated and non-contaminated areas (Barry et al. 2000). Chum salmon (O. keta) fry abundance was significantly lower near the impacted waters (pH < 6 and dissolved copper > 1 mg/L) than the reference area. The investigators also reported that laboratory bioassays confirmed acid mine drainage from the Britannia Mine was toxic to juvenile chinook (O. tshawytscha) and chum salmon. Chinook salmon smolt transplanted to surface cages near Britannia Creek experienced 100% mortality within 2 days (Barry et al 2000). The scientific literature is replete with studies designed to quantify the adverse environmental effects of acid mine drainage on aquatic resources. Most recent investigations focus on multiple bioassessments of large watersheds.

These assessments include water and sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate sampling for taxa richness and abundance, laboratory acute water column evaluations, laboratory chronic sediment testing, caged fish within impacted streams, and development of models to explain and predict impacts of acid mine drainage on various aquatic species (Soucek et al. 2000, Woodward et al. 1997, Maret and MacCoy 2002, Hansen et al. 2002, Kaeser and Sharpe 2001, Baldigo and Lawrence 2000, Johnson et al. 1987, Griffith et al. 2004, Schmidt et al. 2002, Martin and Goldblatt 2007, Beltman et al. 1999, Hansen et al. 1999, Boudou et al. 2005). In line with the above, authors have performed an experiment on assessment of fish survival in natural nallah water, acid mined drainage contaminated nallah water and acid mined drainage effluents. In the present research work Puti fish was used for the experiment. Puti Fish ( Scientific name Swamp barb ) The swamp barb is a tropical freshwater fish belonging to the Cyprininae sub-family of the (Cyprinidae) family. It originates in inland waters in Asia, and is found in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Myanmar.It natively inhabits streams, rivers, canals, mangroves, marshes, swamps, ponds, and inundated fields, mainly in shallow water. They live in a tropical climate in water with a 6.0 - 6.5 pH, a water hardness of 8 - 15 dGH, and a temperature range of 68–77 °F (20– 25 °C). It feeds on worms, benthic crustaceans, insects, and plant matter.The fish will grow in length up to 6 inches (15 centimeters) and weigh up to 60 grams( ) RESEARCH

For the Puti Fish ( Scientific name Swamp barb ) species there has been made a correlation between chemical parameters viz. pH and Dissolved Oxygen of the nallah water in the jar and fish' survival rate. The experiment was done in six 2 liter jar with different chemical concentrations. One liter volume of water sample was taken in each jar. Natural Nallah Water was taken for the experiment purpose. Chemical analysis of Nallah water is given in Table No. 1. Six numbers of Puti fish recovered from same nallah from where the water sample was collected were used in experiment shown in Figure No.1 Synthetic water required for the experiment purpose was prepared by using nallah water and acidic leachate from mined out drainage of coal mines. Six Synthetic samples each of 1 liter volume were prepared from the range of pH 2 to 7 shown in Figure No.2. the concentration of water from all six jars is measured. pH was measured on calibrated table top pH meter and concentration of dissolved oxygen was measured by volumetric method.

The results shown in Table No. 2 and Figure No.3 clearly indicate that, though the puti fish live in a tropical climate in water with a pH of 6.0 - 6.5 but from experimental results it is evidenced that it can also survive to a great extent in low pH value upto 3.04 and Dissolved Oxygen value upto 0.78 mg/liter.

Acid mine drainage and associated weathering products commonly result in physical, chemical and biological impairment of surface water. Evidence from literature and field observations suggests that permitting large scale surface mining in sulfide-hosted rock with the expectation that no degradation of surface water will result due to acid generation imparts a substantial and unquantifiable risk to water quality and fisheries. It can be predicted from the above research that responses for survival of Puti fish in low oxygen and pH levels is possible and survival time in large quantity of flowing natural stream will be more than experimental condition.

Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


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6. Pennsylvania, US Environmental Protection. EPA-R#-73-032: 114. 21

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9. Griffith, M. B., J. M. Lazorchak, and A.T. Herlihy (2004). "Relationships among exceedances of metals criteria, the results of ambient bioassays, and community metrics in mining impacted streams." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(7): 1786- 1795.

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23. Soucek, D. J., D. S. Cherry, R. J. Currie, H. A. Latimer, and G. C. Trent (2000). "Laboratory and field validation in an integrative assessment of an acid mine drainage-impacted watershed." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(4): 1036-1043.

24. Warner, R. W. (1971). "Distribution of biota in a stream polluted by acid mine drainage." Ohio Journal of Science 71(4): 202-215.

25. Woodward, D. F., J. K. Goldstein, A. M. Farag, and W. G. Brunbaugh (1997). "Cutthroat trout avoidance of metals and conditions characteristic of a mining waste site: Coeur d‘Alene River, Idaho." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126(4): 699-706.



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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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