International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 07, April, 2013

Pages: 116-123

Date of Publication: 18-Apr-2013

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Author: Varun Malhotra, Rinku Garg, Yogesh Tripathi, Usha Dhar, Sanjay, Monish, Ranjana, Abhishek, Pronoy

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Swadhyaya or deep study, includes Sravana (study) or reading/hearing a concept in physiology, Manana (with attention) pondering over the concept read or heard, Nidididhyasna or forming a definte concept (3). Visual, auditory and kinaesthetic questionnaire was circulated among 75 medical students. Based on the response, they were categorized into visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learners. Percentage incidence and number of visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learners was calculated. This study enabled teachers to modify their methodology of lecture-delivery pictures (power-point), audio CDs and demonstrations.

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A learning style is a student's consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning. Keefe (1979)6 defines learning styles as the “composite of characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environment.” Learning styles may also be defined as those “educational conditions under which a student is most likely to learn.” (10). Learning styles are not really concerned with what learners learn, but rather how they prefer to learn. The purpose to identify the learning styles in teaching is a) to design learning activities that students will find interesting b) to ensure that learning is meaningful for every student c) to overcome potential barriers and problems to learning d) to improve 1:1 student-teacher communication d) to demonstrate differences to observers and inspectors.(2) HISTORY The VAK approach (Visual Auditory Kinesthetic) to teaching and learning arose out of the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the early 1980s. As doctors used MRI scanning to treat brain-injured patients, they accumulated a mass of data about how the brain processes information. Researchers took the results and aaded them to developing theories in psychology to produce brain-related approaches to learning (2). It is important to think of learning styles as an opportunity to create a meaningful dialogue with your students (2) The Felder Silverman model of learning styles uses an online instrument called the Ïndex of Learning styles and measures students across four dimensions: active/ reflective/sensory/intuitive/visual/verbal/global (2)


Seventy five students of first year MBBS 2012- 13 batch of Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad were given a questionnaire (Appendix 1). Based on their responses, they were categorized as Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Learners (Table 1). a choice implied visual, b choice auditory and c were Kinesthetic of the questionnaire.


35 students (46.67 %) are visual learners, 27 (36.1%) are auditory learner and 20 students are kinesthetic learners. Predominant students are visual learners. Many students did not have one learning style. Many responses were multiple, implying that students had a flexible repertoire from which to choose, depending on the content of learning.


Other studies data that men have a greater tendency to prefer reading, learning and kinesthetic learning over visual and auditory learning, whereas female tend to have roughly equal preferences for all three modalities. (4) Visual learners (65% of population), respond best when the teacher uses graphs, charts, illustrations or other visual aids, leaves white space in hand outs for note taking, uses gapped handouts for checking retention of knowledge, uses reading materials for in-class and out of class activities, invites questions to help them stay alert in auditory environments, uses flip charts to show what will come and what has been presented, emphasizes key points to cue when to take notes and uses visualization, diagram-labeling and picture drawing activities (5-11) Auditory learners (30% of population), respond best when the teacher, begins new material with a brief explanation of what is coming, concludes with a summary of what has been covered, questions learners to draw as much information from them as possible and then fill in the gaps with expertise, include auditory activities, such as brain storming, buzz groups or jeopardy, leaves plenty of time to debrief activities, this allows learners to make connections of what they learned and how it applies to their situation, uses rhymes, songs, background music or advertising jingles to reinforce main points. (5-11) Kinaesthetic learners (5% of population), respond best when the teacher uses hands on, practical activities that get the learners up and moving, uses conversion exercises that translate text into diagrams, scripts, concept maps, pictures, gives frequent stretch-breaks (brainbreaks), uses props and other items which can be handled and investigated, provides sweets or scents which provides a crosslink of scent (aroma) to the topic at hand (scent can be a powerful recall cue), uses colored matches to emphasize key points on flip charts or wipe boards. (5-11) In our study the students were majority of visual learners, promoting a learning-teaching approach of charts, illustrations and power point. However to let the child learn and nurture his qualities, it is best to use a combination of the three approaches above.


Despite the recent criticisms many educationalists agree that students learn best in the classroom when they are fully aware of their strengths and weakness as learners. It is best to avoid labeling students. Students may prefer one learning style but they respond best to a mix of different activities. So it is best to use a combination of learning styles, as mentioned above, to ensure all student needs are met. (2)


Authors acknowledge the great help received from the scholars whose articles cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Authors are grateful to IJCRR editorial board members and IJCRR team of reviewers who have helped to bring quality to this manuscript.


1. Learning styles. Why do they matter? Neil D. Fleming, Charles C Bonwell. Lake Washington of Technology. TRiO Student Support Services Projects

2. The FE Toolkit: A Magazine for Grade 1 Teachers: Learning Styles p1-18.

3. Swami Sri Sri Yukteshvarji. The Prophet and His Mission: A Tribute on his 150th Birth Anniversary. How Bhakati Yoga is Attained as per “The Holy Science” 2005, p 18, 19.

4. Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., and Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Learning and Skills Research Centre. Retrieved January 15, 2008: .pdf

5. Constantinidou, F. and Baker, S. (2002). Stimulus modality and verbal learning performance in normal aging. Brain and Language, 82(3), 296-311.

6. Keefe, J. W. (1979) Learning style: An overview. NASSP's Student learning styles: Diagnosing and proscribing programs (pp. 1- 17). Reston, VA. National Association of Secondary School Principles.

7. Marzano, R. J. (1998). A theory-based metaanalysis of research on instruction. Midcontinent Regional Educational Laboratory, Aurora, CO.

8. Merrill, D. (2000). Instructional Strategies and Learning Styles: Which takes Precedence? Trends and Issues in Instructional Technology, R. Reiser and J. Dempsey (Eds.). Prentice Hall.

9. Hayman-Abello S.E. and Warriner E. M. (2002). Child clinical/pediatric neuropsychology: some recent advances. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 309–339.

10. Stewart, K. L., and Felicetti, L. A. (1992). Learning styles of marketing majors. Educational Research Quarterly, 15(2), 15-23. 11. Thompson-Schill, S., Kraemer, D., Rosenberg, L. (2009). Visual Learners Convert Words To Pictures In The Brain And Vice Versa, Says Psychology Study. University of Pennsylvania. News article retrieved July 10, 2011, from visual-learners-convert-words-pictures-brainand-vice-versa-says-penn-psychology-study

Appendix 1: Study Skills - Student Development and Counselling
VAK Learning Styles Self-Assessment Questionnaire

Circle or tick the answer that most represents how you generally behave.

(It?s best to complete the questionnaire before reading the accompanying explanation.)
1. When I operate new equipment I generally:
a).Read the instructions first.
b).Listen to an explanation from someone who has used it before.
c).Go ahead and have a go, I can figure it out as I use it.
2. When I need directions for travelling I usually:
a).Look at a map.
b).Ask for spoken directions.
c). Allow my nose and maybe use a compass.
3. When I cook a new dish, I like to:
a).Follow a written recipe.
b). Call a friend for an explanation. c).Follow my instincts, testing as I cook.
4. If I am teaching someone something new, I tend to:
a).Write instructions down for them.
b).Give them a verbal explanation.
c).Demonstrate first and then let them have a go.
5. I tend to say:
a).Watch how I do it.
b).Listen to me explain. c).You have a go.
6. During my free time I most enjoy: a).Going to museums and galleries.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

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Best Article Award

A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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List of Awardees

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19

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